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祝福與懷念

張尚德

各位道友:

每逢佳節倍思親,尚德心懷故園,在達摩書院,借秋月傳遞對諸位的關懷與掛念。

我憶念起寒山的詩:

吾心似秋月,

寒潭清皎潔,

無物可比倫,

教我如何說!

各位好好參一參:月光菩薩的清光垂地,寒潭的無比清淨。

無物可比倫,這就只好借文殊大士所說的,無語是不二法門。尚德在無語中,懷念各位,千萬千萬的祝福各位。

 

二零二一年九月十九日

於台灣達摩書院

 

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唯識新引

《成唯識論》新解 

唯識學會創辦人張尚德述

   達摩書院副院長黃高証

278

覓心不可得

《成唯識論》卷十

二 大菩提

二所生得。謂大菩提。此雖本來有能生種。而所知障礙故不生。由聖道力斷彼障故令從種起名得菩提。起已相續窮未來際。此即四智相應心品。

(一) 四智差別門

云何四智相應心品?

一大圓鏡智相應心品。謂此心品離諸分別。所緣行相微細難知。不忘不愚一切境相。性相清淨離諸雜染。純淨圓德現種依持。能現能生身土智影。無間無斷窮未來際。如大圓鏡現眾色像。

(述記:佛地云離我.我所執。一切所取.能取分別。)

(述記:境及行相二俱叵測名為微細。諸不愚者不迷闇義。由此如來名一切種智.及一切智。若不忘者恒現前義。由此如來成不忘失法者。自性明善名為清淨。有漏永亡離諸雜染。)

(述記:純簡因無漏。淨簡一切有漏。圓簡二乘無學功德。)

二平等性智相應心品。謂此心品觀一切法自他有情悉皆平等。大慈悲等恒共相應。隨諸有情所樂示現受用身土影像差別。妙觀察智不共所依。無住涅槃之所建立。一味相續窮未來際。

(述記:更無轉易名為一味。無間斷故名為相續。)

三妙觀察智相應心品。謂此心品善觀諸法自相共相無礙而轉。攝觀無量總持定門及所發生功德珍寶。於大眾會能現無邊作用差別皆得自在。雨大法雨斷一切疑。令諸有情皆獲利樂。

(述記:總持門者陀羅尼門。定門者三摩地門。功德珍寶者。謂六度.道品.十力等法。)

四成所作智相應心品。謂此心品為欲利樂諸有情故。普於十方示現種種變化三業。成本願力所應作事。

如是四智相應心品雖各定有二十二法。能變所變種現俱生。而智用增以智名顯。

(述記:二十二法者。遍行.別境善法并取心故。)

(述記:此二十二者體。能變者是見分。所變者是相分。或識自體名能變。相.見二分名所變 或能變是種。因能變故。所變謂現。果能變故。)

故此四品總攝佛地一切有為功德皆盡。

(二)轉何識得何智門

此轉有漏八七六五識相應品。如次而得。智雖非識而依識轉。識為主故說轉識得。

又有漏位智劣識強。無漏位中智強識劣。為勸有情依智捨識。故說轉八識而得此四智。

(述記:智為決斷。)

(三)轉識得智位次門

大圓鏡智相應心品有義菩薩金剛喻定現在前時即初現起。異熟識種與極微細所知障種俱時捨故。若圓鏡智爾時未起便無能持淨種識故。

有義此品解脫道時初成佛故乃得初起。異熟識種金剛喻定現在前時猶未頓捨。與無間道不相違故。

(述記:無間道與異熟識等俱滅故。既非障法故不相違。)

非障有漏劣無漏法。但與佛果定相違故。金剛喻定無所熏識無漏不增應成佛故。由斯此品從初成佛盡未來際相續不斷。持無漏種令不失故。

(述記:即前所言餘有漏是。謂善.無記體非障有漏之法。)

(述記:無間生已四智圓明無所熏識。諸無漏法更不增長應成佛故。)

平等性智相應心品。菩薩見道初現前位違二執故方得初起。後十地中執未斷故有漏等位或有間斷。法雲地後與淨第八相依相續盡未來際。

妙觀察智相應心品。生空觀品二乘見位亦得初起。此後展轉至無學位或至菩薩解行地終或至上位。若非有漏或無心時皆容現起。

(述記:此即初解生空觀品。漸悟入者至解行地終。頓悟者至無學位。或至上位者。謂至菩薩十地位中。頓漸皆爾。)

法空觀品菩薩見位方得初起。此後展轉乃至上位。若非有漏生空智果或無心時皆容現起。

成所作智相應心品。有義菩薩修道位中後得引故亦得初起。

有義成佛方得初起。以十地中依異熟識所變眼等。非無漏故。有漏不共必俱同境。根發無漏識理不相應故。此二於境明昧異故。由斯此品要得成佛依無漏根方容現起。而數間斷。作意起故。

(四)種性本有始起門

此四種性雖皆本有。而要熏發方得現行。因位漸增。佛果圓滿。不增不減盡未來際。但從種生不熏成種。勿前佛德勝後佛故。

(五)所緣何境界門

大圓鏡智相應心品。有義但緣真如為境。是無分別非後得智。行相所緣不可知故。

有義此品緣一切法。莊嚴論說大圓鏡智於一切境不愚迷故。佛地經說如來智鏡諸處境識眾像現故。又此決定緣無漏種及身土等諸影像故。行緣微細說不可知。如阿賴耶亦緣俗故。

緣真如故是無分別。緣餘境故後得智攝。其體是一。隨用分二。了俗由證真。故說為後得。餘一分二准此應知。

(述記:因有二類種。果恒唯一種。生二用現行。)

平等性智相應心品。有義但緣第八淨識。如染第七緣藏識故。有義但緣真如為境。緣一切法平等性故。有義遍緣真俗為境。佛地經說平等性智證得十種平等性故。莊嚴論說緣諸有情自他平等隨他勝解示現無邊佛影像故。由斯此品通緣真俗二智所攝。於理無違。

妙觀察智相應心品。緣一切法自相共相。皆無障礙。二智所攝。

成所作智相應心品有義但緣五種現境。莊嚴論說如來五根一一皆於五境轉故。有義此品亦能遍緣三世諸法。不違正理。佛地經說成所作智起作三業諸變化事。決擇有情心行差別。領受去來現在等義。若不遍緣無此能。故。

(述記義演:此能决擇所化眾生八萬四千心行差別。)

然此心品隨意樂力或緣一法。或二或多。且說五根於五境轉。不言唯爾。故不相違。

隨作意生緣事相境起化業故。後得智攝。

(六)緣境作用門

此四心品雖皆遍能緣一切法而用有異。謂鏡智品現自受用身淨土相持無漏種。平等智品現他受用身淨土相。成事智品能現變化身及土相。觀察智品觀察自他功能過失雨大法雨破諸疑網利樂有情。

如是等門差別多種。

(述記:諸智相.見分別門。相應心所多少門。善無漏門。假實分別門。及攝諸功德門。)

此四心品名所生得。此所生得總名菩提。及前涅槃名所轉得。雖轉依義總有四種。而今但取二所轉得。頌說證得轉依言故。

此修習位說能證得。非已證得。因位攝故。

 

 

英譯(韋達)

2. MAHABODHI

What the Bodhisattva acquires 'by birth or production' is Mahabodhi.

From all times, [among people who are possessed of the Gotra of Bodhisattvas], there exist Bijas that can produce Mahabodhi; but these Bijas do not produce it as long as Jneyavarana represents a barrier to them. When this barrier is cleared away by the force of the Holy Path, Mahabodhi is born from its Bijas; that is what is called the attainment of Mahabodhi. Once born, it continues without interruption until the end of all ages.

1. What is Mahabodhi? It is the various classes of mental attributes associated with the four transcendental wisdoms (Jnanas), namely, the Great Mirror Wisdom (mahadarsajnana), the Universal Equality Wisdom (samatajnana), the Profound Contemplation Wisdom (pratyaveksanajnana), and the Perfect Achievement Wisdom (krtyanusthanajnana).

(1) The mental attributes associated with the Great Mirror Wisdom (Mahadarsajnana):

The mind associated with this Wisdom is entirely dissociated from all mental discriminations (vikalpa). [According to the Buddhabhumisastra, in this mind there is neither discrimination between atmagraha and atmiyagraha nor discrimination between grahyagraha and grahakagraha.] Its objects of perception and modes of activity are subtle and 'difficult to comprehend'. It carries all objects without failure of memory (because its objects are eternally present)1 and without error (because it is never troubled or obscured).2 In its essential nature and characteristics it is pure (i.e., clear and good), being free from all impurities and confused states (samklesa). It is the supporting basis for absolute qualities (superior to the pure qualities of non-Buddhas) which are pure (i.e., superior to impure qualities) and perfect (i.e., superior to the qualities of the two Vehicles); it is the receptacle of the Bijas of these qualities. It manifests the images of other Jnanas (which themselves are born of their Bijas); it gives birth to bodies and lands. Without interruption, universally and eternally, like a great mirror, it manifests the images of all Rupas.

(2)   The mental attributes associated with the Universal Equality Wisdom (Samatajnana):

The mind associated with this Wisdom sees the identity of all dharmas (by dharmasunyata), and the complete equality between its own self and other sentient beings (by pudgalasunyata); it is always united with great benevolence, great compassion, etc.; it manifests itself, in conformity with the dispositions and predilections of sentient beings (Bodhisattvas of the ten Bhumis), in a variety of forms of Parasambhogakayas3 and their Lands; it is the special supporting basis for the Profound Contemplation Wisdom (Pratyaveksanajnana); it constitutes the Non-abiding Nirvana (Apratisthitanirvana); being always itself, it continues, without interruption, till the end of all ages.

(3)   The mental attributes associated with the Profound Contemplation Wisdom (Pratyaveksanajnana):

The mind associated with this Wisdom discerns in excellent ways the peculiar and common characteristics of all dharmas. It manifests itself without any hindrance. It comprises the observation of innumerable Dharanimukhas and Samadhimukhas, as well as jewels of meritorious virtues, including those which are realized and those which are produced (the six Paramitas, the ten powers, etc.). In Dharma assemblies, it can manifest itself in infinite activities, in all of which it possesses self-mastery. It rains the 'rain of the great Dharma'; it cuts away all doubts; it enables all sentient beings to obtain blessings and joys.

(4)   The mental attributes associated with the Perfect Achievement Wisdom (Krtyanusthanajnana):

The mind associated with this Wisdom, through its desire to promote the welfare and happiness of all sentient beings, manifests itself, throughout the ten regions, in a diversity of fictitious actions of the body, of the voice, and of the mind. In this manner it achieves, by the force of its pious vows, all that is to be done.

Thus, the mind associated with the four Wisdoms (Jnanas) forms in each case a simultaneous group of at least twenty-two dharmas (the mind itself, five universal Caittas, five special ones, and eleven good ones). It comprises, like tfests itself and that which is manifested), in action. But the attribute of wisdom is particularly active. This mind is therefore indicated by the name of wisdom (Jnana).

 

THE BHAGAS

[That which manifests itself - darsanabhaga;

 that which is manifested - nimittabhaga.

or

That which manifests itself - svasamvittibhaga;

that which is manifested - darsanabhaga and nimittabhaga.

or

That which manifests itself - Bijas;

that which is manifested - the actual mental activities.]

It may therefore be said that these four Wisdoms comprise as a whole all the conditioned qualities (samskrtas) of the Bhumi of the Buddhas.

 

2.        What are the consciousnesses the transformation (paravrti) of which causes the four Wisdoms to be attained?

The four Wisdoms are attained by the transformation of the mental attributes of the eighth, the seventh, the sixth, and the first, five consciousnesses respectively while they are still in the impure state, the first Wisdom corresponding to the impure Alayavijnana, the second to the impure Manas, and so forth,

Jnana (which is a caitta) is not consciousness, but it depends on consciousness for its evolution or birth. It has consciousness as its 'lord’ being related to it just as a minister is releated to his ruler or a servant to his master. It is therefore said that Wisdom is attained by the transformation (paravrti) of consciousness.

The second explanation is that Wisdom (which is decision, judgment) is feeble in the impure state while consciousness (which is perception) is strong. The reverse is true in the pure state. In order to encourage sentient beings to depend on and cleave to Wisdom and reject or relinquish consciousness, we say that one attains the four Wisdoms by virtue of the transformation of the eight consciousnesses.

3.        At what moments are the four Wisdoms attained?

(1) Great Mirror Wisdom (Adarsajnana) - There are two doctrines.

First doctrine, incorrect [although it is taught in the Buddhabhumisastra] . - The Great Mirror Wisdom commences its manifestation at the moment of Vajropamasamadhi (Diamond Samadhi, anantaryamarga), because at that moment there are rejected the Bijas of the Vipakavijnana and, simultaneously with them, the most subtle Bijas of Jneyavarana; because, if the Great Mirror Wisdom had not been born at that moment, an eighth consciousness capable of bearing the pure Bijas would be lacking.

Second doctrine, - The Great Mirror Wisdom only commences its manifestation on the Path of Emancipation (vimuktimarga) which follows the Vajropamasamadhi and on which the Bodhisattva has just attained Buddhahood. In fact, the Bijas of Vipakavijnana are not yet rejected at the moment of this Samadhi since they are not in contradiction with the anantaryamarga. [They are simultaneous to it: they perish at the same time with it.]

In fact, the impure dharmas which do not represent a barrier (that is, the good-impure dharmas and the Vipakavijnana which is non-defined) and the pure mediocre dharmas (that is, the pure dharmas of the ten Bhumis) are only

or

That which manifests itself - svasamvittibhaga;

that which is manifested - darsanabhaga and nimittabhaga.

or

That which manifests itself - Bijas;

that which is manifested - the actual mental activities.]

It may therefore be said that these four Wisdoms comprise as a whole all the conditioned qualities (samskrtas) of the Bhumi of the Buddhas.

 

2.        What are the consciousnesses the transformation (paravrti) of which causes the four Wisdoms to be attained?

The four Wisdoms are attained by the transformation of the mental attributes of the eighth, the seventh, the sixth, and the first, five consciousnesses respectively while they are still in the impure state, the first Wisdom corresponding to the impure Alayavijnana, the second to the impure Manas, and so forth,

Jnana (which is a caitta) is not consciousness, but it depends on consciousness for its evolution or birth. It has consciousness as its 'lord’ being related to it just as a minister is releated to his ruler or a servant to his master. It is therefore said that Wisdom is attained by the transformation (paravrti) of consciousness.

The second explanation is that Wisdom (which is decision, judgment) is feeble in the impure state while consciousness (which is perception) is strong. The reverse is true in the pure state. In order to encourage sentient beings to depend on and cleave to Wisdom and reject or relinquish consciousness, we say that one attains the four Wisdoms by virtue of the transformation of the eight consciousnesses.

3.        At what moments are the four Wisdoms attained?

(1) Great Mirror Wisdom (Adarsajnana) - There are two doctrines.

First doctrine, incorrect [although it is taught in the Buddhabhumisastra] . - The Great Mirror Wisdom commences its manifestation at the moment of Vajropamasamadhi (Diamond Samadhi, anantaryamarga), because at that moment there are rejected the Bijas of the Vipakavijnana and, simultaneously with them, the most subtle Bijas of Jneyavarana; because, if the Great Mirror Wisdom had not been born at that moment, an eighth consciousness capable of bearing the pure Bijas would be lacking.

Second doctrine, - The Great Mirror Wisdom only commences its manifestation on the Path of Emancipation (vimuktimarga) which follows the Vajropamasamadhi and on which the Bodhisattva has just attained Buddhahood. In fact, the Bijas of Vipakavijnana are not yet rejected at the moment of this Samadhi since they are not in contradiction with the anantaryamarga. [They are simultaneous to it: they perish at the same time with it.]

In fact, the impure dharmas which do not represent a barrier (that is, the good-impure dharmas and the Vipakavijnana which is non-defined) and the pure mediocre dharmas (that is, the pure dharmas of the ten Bhumis) are only in contradiction with the fruit of Buddha, not with Vajropamasamadhi. If, after the birth of Vajropamasamadhi, there no longer exists a perfumable eighth consciousness (the Vipakavijnana), and if pure dharmas no longer grow and increase, the Bodhisattva has attained Buddhahood. The four Wisdoms will then be in manifestation.

In consequence, it is at the moment when the Bodhisattva becomes a Buddha that the eighth consciousness is first associated with the Great Mirror Wisdom. As such, it remains until the end of time in an uninterrupted series, bearing the pure Bijas in such a manner that they are preserved forever, without being lost.

(2)      Universal Equality Wisdom (Samatajnaha)

This Wisdom begins its manifestation in those Bodhisattvas who have entered the path of insight into Truth (Darsanamarga), since this path is in contradiction with the two 'adhesions' to Atman and dharmas (klesavarana and jneyavarana). However, in the course of the ten Bhumis, because the two clingings which belong to the seventh consciousness, Manas, have not yet been cut off, this Wisdom is interrupted occasionally when the sixth consciousness is impure. [Up to the seventh Bhumi, pure and impure thoughts are mixed together.] But after the tenth Bhumi, when the seventh consciousness and the pure eighth consciousness support and depend upon each other, this Universal Equality Wisdom will last without any interruption until the end of time.

(3)      Profound Contemplation Wisdom (Pratyaveksanajnana)

This Wisdom is of two kinds, corresponding to the view of pudgalasunyata and to that of dharmasunyata.

a.        The first kind, referring to the wisdom of Pudgalasunyata, begins to manifest itself also on the Darsanamarga (path of insight into Truth) of the Lesser Vehicle. It continues right up to the state of Asaiksa (whose realization of Truth is instantaneous) or to the end of the Adhimukticarya4 of the Bodhisattvas (whose realization of Truth is gradual), or right up to the superior states (i.e., the ten Bhumis and Buddhas). It is capable of manifestation as long as the mind is not impure5 and as long as the yogin is not absorbed in mindless meditation.

b.        The second kind, referring to the wisdom of Dharmasunyata, is born at the moment of entry into the Darsanamarga of the Bodhisattvas: it continues up to the superior states. It is capable of manifestation as long as the mind is not impure, as long as the wisdom of Pudgalasunyata and its fruit (Subsequent Wisdom) are not taking place, and as long as the Bodhisattva is not absorbed in mindless meditation.

(4)      Perfect Achievement Wisdom (Krtyanusthanajnana)

a. According to one theory, this Wisdom can be born in the stage of meditation and self-cultivation (Bhavanamarga) of the Bodhisattvas, because it is brought about by the 'Subsequent Wisdom' (prsthalabdhajnana, which belongs to Manovijnana).

b. According to the second theory, the Bodhisattva begins to manifest this Wisdom only when he has attained Buddhahood. In fact, in the course of the ten Bhumis, the consciousnesses which are based on the sense-organs (eye, ear, etc.) cannot be pure, since these organs are evolved by the Vipakavijnana, i.e., the eighth consciousness, which is not pure. That impure dharmas - which are the special supporting bases for consciousness, which are contemporaneous with it, and which aim at the same object as it does - should produce a pure consciousness is an impossibility. Between an impure sense organ and a pure consciousness there is, as regards the object, the difference between light and darkness. Consequently, this Wisdom of Perfect Achievement begins to manifest itself only when Buddhahood is attained, because in him alone are found the pure sense-organs which serve as the supporting basis for that Wisdom. It should be noted that this Wisdom is frequently interrupted, for it can only be born of'active mental attention'.

4.        Bijas of the four Wisdoms

The Bijas of all the four Wisdoms are innate and have existed from time without beginning; but, in order that these Wisdoms may actually manifest themselves, the Bijas must be 'perfumed'. In the course of the 'period of cause' (hetu-avastha: before the state of Buddhahood), the Bijas increase gradually; in the state of Buddhahood (phalavastha), and up to the end of time, they are perfect in all perfections: they neither increase nor decrease. The actual Wisdoms are born of their Bijas, but these Bijas are not created as a result of perfuming because the eighth consciousness of the Buddha is not perfumable. The reason for this is that, if they were perfumable, the ancient Buddhas would have been superior in moral qualities to the later Buddhas.

5.        Object (alambana) of the Wisdoms

(I) GREAT MIRROR WISDOM

Adarsajnana

First doctrine. - The mind associated with the Great Mirror Wisdom has as its object Bhutatathata only, because this Wisdom is the Fundamental Non-discriminating Wisdom (Nirvikalpaka Jnana), not the Subsequent Wisdom (Prsthalabdha Jnana); because its mode of activity (akara) and its object (alambana) are unknowable.

Second doctrine. - This, mind has as its object all dharmas. According to the Mahayana-Sutralamkara Sastra, the Great Mirror Wisdom is free from errors in its perception of all objects. According to the Buddhabhumi Sutra, '[Just as images appear in a mirror, so], in the Mirror Wisdom of the Tathagata there appear all images of the six Ayatanas (eye, ear, etc.), the six Visayas (colour, sound, etc.), and the six consciousnesses (visual consciousness, auditory consciousness, etc.). [This is why Bhagavat is omniscient]'. Furthermore, the mind associated with this Wisdom definitely perceives the pure Bijas and images of bodies and lands.

Its mode of activity and its object are said to be unknowable because they are subtle; but despite its subtlety, this mind, like the Alayavijnana, does perceive the Samvrti, i.e., the variety of dharmas.

When this Wisdom perceives Bhutatathata, it is Nirvikalpaka Jnana; when it perceives other objects, it is Prsthalabdha Jnana,

In its essential nature, it is unique; with respect to its activity, it is twofold. When it distinguishes the Samvrti, it is through the functioning of the Bhutatathata which it has realized: it is therefore said to be 'subsequent’ (prsthalabdha). [In the state of cause, among the Bodhisattvas: the Bijas of the nirvikalpaka and prsthalabdha Jnanas are distinct. Among the Buddhas, the same Bijas produce the two actual Jnanas]. - This remark applies to the other Wisdoms.

(2) UNIVERSAL EQUALITY WISDOM

Samatajnana

a.     First doctrine, - The mind associated with this Wisdom, which is pure Manas, bears on the pure eighth consciousness just as defiled Manas bears on the Alaya.

b.     Second doctrine. - Its object is Bhutatathata only since it perceives the identity or equality (samata) of aii dharmas (sarvadharmasamata).

c.     The correct doctrine. - It bears both on Reality (tattva) and on the Samvrti. The Buddhabhumi Sutra teaches that the Universal Equality Wisdom attains the ten species of Samata (nature of equality). The Sutralamkara says that the Samatajnana, bearing on universal identity' on the equality between the self and other beings, manifests itself as innumerable images of Buddhas in harmony with the dispositions of sentient beings. Hence the mind associated with the Samatajnana bears on Reality and on the Samvrti; it is Nirvikalpaka or Prsthalabdha Jnana according to the case in question.

 

(3) PROFOUND CONTEMPLATION WISDOM

Pratyaveksanajnana

The mind associated with this Wisdom has a bearing on the individual and common characteristics of all dharmas without anything representing a barrier to it. It comes under the categories of both the Nirvikalpaka and the Prsthalabdha Jnanas.

 

(4) PERFECT ACHIEVEMENT WISDOM

 Krtyanusthanajnana

First doctrine, -The mind associated with this Wisdom bears only on the five kinds of actual objects (colour, sound, etc,), because the Sutralamkara teaches that each of the five sense-organs of the Tathagata perceives all the five corresponding objects.

Second doctrine. - This mind has a bearing on all the dharmas of the three periods. In fact, the Buddhabhumi Sutra says that the Perfect Achievement Wisdom (Krtyanusthanajnana) manifests itself as innumerable and varied transformation bodies (Tathagatanirmanakayas) and their three varieties of deeds; that it assures itself of the 84,000 states of mind of sentient beings; and that it perceives the past, the future, and the present. This Wisdom would be incapable of such an employment if its range of perceptions were not universal.

In fact, the mind associated with this Wisdom, by the force of the intentions and predilections of the Buddha, bears either on one object (colour), or on two (colour and sound), or on many objects. As for the saying in the Sutralamkara that each of the five sense-organs of the Tathagata perceives all the five corresponding objects, this Sutra does not say that that is the entire range of activity of a Tathagata's sense-organs. Hence we do not contradict this text in thinking that the five consciousnesses associated with the Perfect Achievement Wisdom bear on the six objects, i.e., colour, sound . . . dharmas.

Born as the result of an act of attention, bearing on the characteristics of things, manifesting itself as transformation bodies and their varieties of deeds, this Wisdom forms part of the Subsequent Wisdom (prsthalabdhajnana).

6. Activity of the four Wisdoms

Although all these four Wisdoms have a bearing on all dharmas, nevertheless, their activity presents varieties.

(1)   The Mirror Wisdom (Adarsajnana) manifests the Svasambhogakaya (the functioning glorious body for a Buddha's own use) with its pure Land; it carries the pure Bijas (i.e., the pure qualities of the fruit of Buddha).

(2)   The Universal Equality Wisdom (Samatajnana) manifests the Parasambhogakaya (the functioning glorious body for the spiritual benefit of others) with its pure Land.

(3)   The Perfect Achievement Wisdom (Krtyanusthanajnana) manifests the transformation body (Nirmanakaya) with its Land (pure or impure).

(4)   The Profound Contemplation Wisdom (Pratyaveksanajnana) observes and examines the virtues and vices of the self and others; it rains the 'rain of the great Dharma'; it breaks through the net of doubts; it actualizes the well-being and happiness of sentient beings.

Innumerable are the points of view under which one can examine the Wisdom. [K’uei Chi: their Bhagas; which are their associates; which are their moral species, etc.?]

The minds associated with these four Wisdoms are what the Bodhisattva 'obtains by producing'. They are designated, as a group, by the term 'Bodhi'. With Nirvana which is 'obtained by being revealed or made present to oneself, it is 'that which is obtained through inner transformation (asrayaparavrti)'. We have seen that the subject of inner transformation (Paravrti) can be examined from four points of view; but here one is concerned only with the two things obtained by Paravrti, because the Stanza says, 'Because of the abandonment of the crude dross of the two barriers, inner transformation (asrayaparavrti) is achieved.'

We have studied this stage of meditation and self-cultivation (Bhavanavastha) and explained that which the Bodhisattva realizes and obtains by it: he realizes Nirvana and obtains Bodhi. However this Bhavana indicates only the capacity for realization and attainment, not actual realization and attainment, for it belongs to the stage or period of ‘cause’ (ketvavastha). [We have to examine the final stage or period of 'fruit' (phalavastha), the stage or period of perfect achievement.]

 

 

1  This is why the Tathagata is named amusitasmrti (he who never fails in his memory of dharmas).

2 This is why the Tathagata is named sarvajna and sarvakarajna (‘All-Wisdom' and 'All-Bija-Wisdom').

3  Bodies endowed wish subtle and pure qualities for enjoyment by Bodhisattvas of the ten Bhumis.

4 This is the stage of apprehending and following the teachings.

5 Before the seventh Bhumi, the mind is sometimes impure.

 

 

中譯(黃高証)

2. 大菩提

菩薩的所生得,即大菩提。P

無始以來,(菩薩種性)本有大菩提種;但這些種子被所知障阻礙,不能生現行。當聖道力切斷所知障時,大菩提就從菩提種展現;這就是所謂的成就大菩提。此菩提種一旦起現行,便相續不斷,未來際

1. 什麼是大菩提?它是四種聖智相應心品,四智是大圓鏡智、平等性智、妙觀察智和成所作智。

1) 與大圓鏡智相應的心品:

     與此智相應的心品,遠離種種虛妄分別, [根據《佛地經》的說法,此心遠離我執和我所執的分別,也沒有所取和能取之分別。它的所緣行相微細難知於一切境相皆不忘失(恆現前義)1,也無愚昧(因為它從不迷晦)2此心品之性相清淨(即清澈明淨),無雜無染。它是至德(非其他未成佛者之無漏德可及)的支撐基礎,亦為純淨(非一切有漏可及),圓滿具足(非二乘德可及),是現行功德與種子功德的依持,能現身、土,乃至其他智種所生影相。窮未來際,無有間斷,就像大圓鏡一樣現眾色像。

2) 與平等性智相應的心品:

與平等性智相應的心品,(以法空故)觀一切法無別,(以生空故)觀諸有情,自他悉皆平等。恆與大慈悲等相應,隨諸有情(初地到十地的菩薩)之所樂,示現種種受用身3及諸受用土影像。此智是妙觀察智的不共所依無住涅槃依平等性智而立,恆以一味,無間相續,至未來際

3)與妙觀察智相應的心品:

      與妙觀察智相應的心品,善於觀察諸法的自相和共相,無礙而轉。又能攝無數無量陀羅尼、定門,及其所生六度、十力等)功德珍寶。於大眾法會示現無邊妙用差別,一一皆得自在雨大法雨斷一切眾疑使諸有情都獲得利益和安樂

4)與成所作智相應的心品:

與成所作智相應的心品,能使一切有情安和樂利普於十方世界,以身口意三業示現種種變化,圓成本願力應作的事業。

因此,四智相應心品中,在每種情況下,各個心品至少有二十二法(即心本身,五遍行,五別境,十一善),能變的種子與所變的現行同時俱起。由於智慧的作用增上,故以「智」名顯其心品

[能變者為見分;

所變者為相分。

識本身是能變;

所顯的相見二分是所變。

能變是種子;

所變是現行。]

因此可以說,四智為一整體,統攝佛地全部有為功德

2.轉何識,成何智?

四智是通過轉變染污的第八、七、六、前五識而證得的,第一大圓鏡智是轉有漏的阿賴耶識而得,第二平等性智對應於有漏的末那識,其他以此類推。

智非是識,但依識而轉。以識為主故,說智是由轉識而得。就像臣子以君上為主,僕人以雇者為主。

第二種解釋是,在有漏位,智劣識強可決斷,為分別)。在無漏位則反之。為鼓勵諸有情依智捨識所以說轉八識成四智

3. 四智是什麼時候現起的?

1) 大圓鏡智——有二說。

第一說,非本論正義, [出自《佛地經論》]在菩薩金剛喻定(金剛三昧)現前時,大圓鏡智開始顯現,因為在那一刻,既捨異熟識種子,同時也捨極微細所知障種。假如大圓鏡智在那一刻還不現起,那就不應有能持淨種的第八識。

第二說:大圓鏡智要到解脫道初成佛果時,方得現起。其實異熟識種在金剛喻定現前時未全頓捨。因為它們與無間道並不衝突 [異熟識種與無間道并存,於無間道後全除]

事實上,有漏法(即有漏善和無記異熟識)及劣無漏法(即十地無漏法)只與佛果相違,對金剛道不衝突。假如金剛喻定時便可捨去異熟種,那麼金剛喻定就沒有可受熏的第八異熟識,且無漏法不再增長,此菩薩就應等同於佛才對,四智也當隨即顯現。

(尚德按:這一段意思很深,非常複雜。菩薩十地,還有十障。更需要指出的是,即使到了十地菩薩,還要繼續往等覺、妙覺邁進。韋達的英文翻譯,在此段,十地菩薩與佛的差距,用「矛盾」一詞做翻譯,不能說錯,實在是不容易懂也。)

故知菩薩初成佛時,第八識方轉為大圓鏡智,從而盡未來際,相續不絕,能持無漏種子,使無漏種不散失。

2)平等性智

菩薩真見道初現前位,我、法(煩惱與所知)的二執不生,平等性智便得初起。然而,在十地的過程中,由於第七識的二執粗重未斷,當第六識之有漏現起時,此智偶有間斷 [即使在第七地,有漏、無漏心仍展轉出現]。第十法雲地後,當第七識和無漏的第八識互依互持,平等性智相續無間,盡未來際。

3)妙觀察智

妙觀察智有二:生空觀品與法空觀品

a、 第一,指的是生空觀智。這在二乘見道之初,便可生起。頓悟此觀後,展轉至無學位方得究竟。或指(漸悟)菩薩在解行地4後,或指至上位(即十地和佛位)。只要行者不是無心定或有漏心,妙觀察智皆能顯現。

      b、 第二,指的是法空觀智。要到菩薩見道位初地入心,方得現起,一直持續至上位。只要不是有漏心的生空智果(後得智),且菩薩不住在無心定,則妙觀察智皆能顯現。

4)成所作智

a. 有說,成所作智可出現在菩薩修道位中,由第六意識的後得智引生亦得初起。    

b. 另一家說,菩薩只有在成佛之後才開始顯現成所作智。事實上,在十地的過程中,感官(眼、耳等五根,並非無漏,因為這些感官是第八異熟識之顯化而有,故非無漏。有漏根是識的不共所依基礎,與識俱起,並同緣一境,故有漏根不能發無漏識。有漏根和無漏識之間,對所緣境而言,有如明暗之別。因此,這種圓滿成就的智慧只有在成佛後才會顯現出來,因為唯獨佛身才有無漏根,作為成所作智的支持基礎。應該注意的是,成所作智常有間斷,因為它是隨作意而起的。

4、四智種子

從無始以來,四智的種子本自具足,但要經由熏發,這些智慧方得現行。智種在因位(成佛之前)漸次趨勝,直到佛果才究竟圓滿,不增不減,盡未來際。智慧現行是從種子生起,但不再另熏新種,因為佛的第八識是不可熏的。假如佛果依然可熏,那麼古佛的功德便應勝過後佛。

5. 智的所緣

1) 大圓鏡智

第一說,大圓鏡智相應心品,只緣真如為境。因為此智是根本無分別智,而不是後得智,它的行相、所緣,都極微細,不可測知

第二說,此智心品緣一切法。根據大乘莊嚴論》所言:大圓鏡智於一切境,不愚不迷《佛地經》上說:「如來的智鏡,似鏡顯像,能現六根(眼、耳等)、六塵(色、聲等)(視覺、聽覺等)所有眾像 [是故佛為正遍知]。」再者,大圓鏡智決定緣無漏種子及身土等影像。。

大圓鏡智的行相及所緣微細,說為不可知。儘管此智微妙,亦如阿賴耶識,能緣俗諦諸法。

當大圓鏡智緣真如時,是無分別智;當它緣餘境時,屬後得智

      大圓鏡智的本質是一,隨用分之為二。菩薩了俗必由證真,因此了俗智稱為“後得” [在菩薩位,無分別智種和後得智種是不同的。在佛位,同一種子可起二用現行]。其他諸智,同理可知。

2 平等性智

a、 第一說,平等性智相應心品,即無漏末那,只緣第八淨識就像染污的末那,只緣取阿賴耶識一樣。

      b、 第二說,平等性智唯緣真如為境,因為它緣一切法的平等性(諸法平等)。

      c、 正確的教義:平等性智緣真如,也緣俗諦為境《佛地經》說,平等性智證得十種平等性《莊嚴經論》說,平等性智緣取諸有情的自他平等,隨順他人的勝解,示現無佛的影像。因此,平等性智相應心品通緣真俗,為根本或後得智所攝

3) 妙觀察智

妙觀察智相應心品,緣所有法的自相和共相,皆無障礙。它屬於根本、後得二智所攝

4 成所作智

第一說,成所作智相應心品,只緣取五種現境(色、聲等),因為《莊嚴經論》說,如來的五根,一一都能感知所有五相應境

      第二說,此智也能夠遍緣過去、現在、未來的各種事物。事實上,《佛地經》說:成所作智生起無量應化身及三業變化事,可決擇眾生八萬四千種心行差別,能緣過去,未來和現在。」如果成所作智不是遍緣三世諸法的話,那就應無此功能

      實際上,成所作智相應心品隨佛之意樂力,或緣一法(色),或緣二法(色和聲),或緣多法《莊嚴經論》上只說佛的五根,一一皆能感知到所有五境。這經文並不是說如來的根只緣該境。因此,成所作智相應的五識,緣色聲法等六境,與經論不矛盾。

      此智是隨作意而生緣取事相,表現為應化身和各種作業,這種智慧屬後得智的一部分。

6.四智的作用

儘管這四智都能遍緣一切法,但它們的作用有區別

1大圓鏡智相應心品,能現起自受用光明身,及淨土境相,又持無漏種子(即佛果的無漏功德)。

2平等性智相應心品,能現起他受用光明身,及他受用的淨土境相

3成所作智相應心品,能現起變化身,及淨穢土相。

4妙觀察智相應心品,能觀察自己和他人的功能過失,於淨穢國土,降大法雨,破除疑網,利樂有情。

如是智慧等門差別無數 [窺基大師:有諸智相見分別門,相應心所門,善無漏門等等]

      四智相應心品是菩薩“所生得”,總名為菩提。涅槃是所顯得,二者合為「所轉得」。我們已知,可以從四個範疇來了解轉依;但在這裡,只討論兩個所轉得,因為這一說,「捨二粗重故,便證得轉依」

我們已經瞭解修習位,並解釋了菩薩能證大涅槃和大菩提。然而,此修習位說能證得,並不是實際已證得。因為它仍屬“因位”[還須進修究竟果位,進入圓滿成就的階段。]

 

----------------------

1這就是為什麼如來被稱為不忘失法者(於法明記不失)。

2 這就是為什麼如來被稱為一切智和一切種智。

3 此受用身乃微細意生,具無漏功德,為十地菩薩所受用。

4 解行地是瞭解和遵行教義的階段。

5 在第七地之前,心有時是染污的。

 

尚德按:

此次《成唯識論》談到唯識五位修法的修習位。涉及到根本智、後得智、道種智、一切智、一切種智等內容,略釋如下:

根本智是無分別智,言語道斷,心行處滅,超越能緣所緣之差別。此智是一切法樂,一切功德之根本,故名為根本智。

後得智是在根本智後,分別一切差別相之智,能以同體大悲救眾生。二者的區別是根本智不住於境,後得智能緣諸境

一切智是聲聞緣覺之智。能知一切法之總相,總相即是空相。

道種智乃菩薩的智慧,知一切存在種種差別之道。

一切種智是佛智。佛智妙明,通達總相別相,圓照空假中三者,皆見實相,名一切種智。

要注意的是,《大般若經》還說「一切智智」,一切智智即佛的十智,也就是把所有智綜合在一起,遍知一切法,又超越一切法。

再說中國佛法有十宗,在智的綜合與分別上,有一智、二智、三智……到十智等。

佛法最後是歸到智慧,印心的《楞伽》說:「智不得有無」,《心經》更是強調:「無智亦無得,以無所得故」。

   以上稍述什麼是智之後,再次指出此次《唯識新引》的要點;

1 菩薩修習位說的大菩提,就是轉識成智。

2轉識成智包括轉第八識成大圓鏡智、第七識為平等性智、第六識成妙觀察智、前五識為成所作智。

3大圓鏡智要到解脫道剛成佛時方得初起。此智遠離各種虛妄分別,所緣行相微細難知。性相純淨無染,萬德圓滿,就像一面大圓鏡,可現各種色像。佛的大圓鏡智能夠現起自受用身及自受用的淨土境相。

4平等性智在遠離我、法二執時便得初起,觀察一切法及有情自他悉皆平等。此智恆與大慈悲相應,佛的平等性智,能夠現起他受用身及他受用的淨土境相。

5妙觀察智可透過生空觀與法空觀,令其發起。此智善觀諸法自相和共相,無礙而轉,能攝無量陀羅尼、三摩地,示現神通自在。佛的妙觀察智,能於淨穢土,破一切疑網,利樂有情。

6成所作智要到成佛方得初起,此智能於十方世界,普現種種變化,以身語意三業,成就本願利他事業。佛的成所作智,能現起變化身及淨穢化土相

7四智在修習位被說為能證得,而不是已證得。因為修習位仍屬因位所攝,還要繼續往佛地的果位前進。

尚德再按:

   唯識的修習位,唐玄奘一再談及八識的轉識成智。在此懷念及吾師南公懷瑾先生,祂在太湖大學堂涅槃之前,很久一段時間,每晚飯後,陪著大家念誦唐玄奘寫的《八識規矩頌》。《八識規矩頌》在佛法修行次第的重要性,不是重要所能形容的。它把整個佛法見地、功夫、行願的理解與修持方法,大綱又細緻地綜合在一起。這就要提高警覺,南老師為什麼如此重視《八識規矩頌》了。

   我是和南老師學禪的,南老師對禪門文化的理解、實現與起用,尚德敬讚其為:

「天下第一翁」

這又讓我想起了中國禪宗二祖神光大師。祂本來對先秦文化,特別是儒家,有極高深的理解和造詣。現在以《指月錄》所記述的,祂在智慧上是如何轉進禪門文化的。

「有僧神光。久居伊洛。博覽群籍。善談玄理。每歎曰。孔老之教。禮術風規。莊易之書。未盡妙理。近聞達摩大士。住止少林。至人不遙。當造玄境。遂詣祖參承。祖常端坐面壁。莫聞誨勵。光自惟曰。昔人求道。敲骨取髓。刺血濟饑。布髮掩泥。投崖飼虎。古尚若此。我又何人。值大雪。光夜侍立。遲明積雪過膝。立愈恭。祖顧而憫之。問曰。汝久立雪中。當求何事。光悲淚曰。惟願和尚慈悲。開甘露門。廣度群品。祖曰。諸佛無上妙道。曠劫精勤。難行能行。非忍而忍。豈以小德小智輕心慢心。欲冀真乘。徒勞勤苦。光聞祖誨勵。潛取利刀。自斷左臂。置於祖前。祖知是法器。乃曰。諸佛最初求道。為法忘形。汝今斷臂吾前。求亦可在。祖遂因與易名曰慧可。乃曰。諸佛法印即得聞乎。祖曰。諸佛法印。匪從人得。可曰。我心未寧。乞師與安。祖曰。將心來與汝安可良久曰。覔心了不可得。祖曰。我與汝安心竟。」

《大般若經》一再強調:

「凡所有相,皆是性空。」

三界唯心

覓心了不可得也

 

279

待續   

 

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道  友

張尚德

各位道友:

現在流行病讓人煩悶,好好熟念《心經》。

總括三句話如下:

1 心無罣礙(昨天那樣,今天如此,明天又如何?生生世世在那裡掛念個什麼?天下本無事,庸人自擾之而已。)

2 得無所得(在真正認識上,是諸法空相。一切成住壞空,又得個什麼?)

3 無有恐怖,遠離顛倒夢想(努力歸到自己本來有的寧靜。真正的寧靜,就是不生不滅,不垢不淨,不增不減。)

 祝福大家,好好背熟《心經》,常常念上面總括三句,生活在裡面,就OK了。

 

二零二一年六月二十二日

於台灣達摩書院

 

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永遠懷念

張尚德

各位道友:

  物華天寶,人傑地靈,湘潭自唐朝以來,歷代出了四十位以上的大禪師。

  大家每年五一聚在道南書院「共品禪味」,真是有說不完的話。

  當六根落在六塵時,不起執著,全力歸到自己本來有的平靜。

  無盡的懷念大家!希望我們很快能再相聚一堂。

  祝福!千萬祝福!

 

 

尚德 於台灣達摩書院

二零二一年五月二日

 

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又是花开时候

圓亮

“帘外雨潺潺,春意阑珊。”正是乡村三月的写照。

道南书院茶花灿烂,红粉亮丽;杨柳抽枝,嫩芽垂地;杜鹃花含苞欲放,广玉兰相继吐蕊,朵朵花瓣风姿绰约,鲜活可爱,似一只只展翅欲飞的小鸟……(果然不过七天,就全飞走了。)

田边簇拥着紫色的地丁花,梨花妆成一树树的雪,桃树鼓红了每一个花苞。菜花成片盛开,处处金黄翠绿,这是早春最热烈的问候。

虽然疫情还在,这里几乎没有什么影响。村民们随着时节,翻地耕作,收获夏秋二季稻子,菜园四季绿色不断;虽然五天一个赶集,网上超市的车却天天到来,在一个个小店放下众多货物;傍晚时分,三三两两的人群散步依旧。节假日,车流不断,最多的一家,院子里停了五辆。

 

由於疫情影響,老师已经一年多没能来了。

但案上有老师的书,网上有老师的音容,院子的每一个角落都留有老师的足迹。偶尔的电话,慈爱关怀,谆谆教诲,暖人心窝,感人肺腑。老师时刻与我们在一起!

师父领进门,修行在个人。这是老师的告诫。

过去的一年,是重新审视生命与疾病的一年,病毒无国界,我们的国家经历了前所未有的防疫考验。自上而下,无论是领导层还是普通百姓,都交出了令人自豪的答卷。我深深地感动于国家对生命的尊重,感动于每个人的自律、互助与牺牲,其中所透出的满满善意,再次印证了中华民族的最根本的人文文化:善。

老师一再强调:中华精华文化是善的文化。

无论是易经所讲:一阴一阳之谓道,继之者善也,成之者性也。还是儒家推崇的仁义礼智信,佛家的慈悲喜舍,道家的慈俭谦,无一不以善为起始,至善为终点。

真理是经得起时间的考验的,五千多年的文化传承至今,仍带来无尽的温暖与力量。我为生于这样的国家,处于这样的时代而感恩。

 

道南书院位于湖南湘潭乡下,与青山绿水相邻,田野村落为伴。能欣赏太阳升起时的云蒸霞蔚,落日时分的漫天霞光;看得见月亮的阴晴圆缺,色彩各异,从银白,粉红,淡黄,至金黄,桔红,大红。大开眼界。

因少有路灯,月圆之夜,若明灯在天,泻下满地清光,寂静空灵。墙面如霜似雪,琉璃瓦上点点金光,绿叶之间银光闪烁,恍若天宫。

在这里,我充分领略了古典建筑之美。天地建筑园林水池,极其和谐地呼应融和,完全体现了中国文化天地人合一的内在精神。在我们的传统文化,人与自然永远是统一而不矛盾的,个体的生命也因此延伸,与天地同在。这是何等的气派,何等的美!

蓝天旷野之间,远远地,就能看到书院高耸而立。朱柱雕窗,白墙金瓦,庄重凛然,气势恢宏。

一进来,首先感觉沉静大气,让人身心收敛。细细观看,则精妙雅致,移步换景,极富韵味。无论从哪个角度,均是赏心悦目。以至于打扫的时候,会时时停下欣赏。累了的时候,随便一站,掠过高高的屋脊注目白云,倚着朱红的楼柱远眺大地,手抚曲折回旋的雕栏,看着精心设计的树木鱼池,是很舒服的休息。每每至此,由衷地感恩老师和所有为此出力的道友。

 

书院的生活简单平静。主要劳动是清洁维护。除了散步时与村民打个招呼,取一些快递,没有和外界太多的交集。衣服是穿不破的,吃的也有限,太饱不适。其实人需要的并不多。

最倒霉的事,不过是冬天被躲在厚袜子里的黄蜂蜇了一下,第二天就消肿了。(可怜的黄蜂,不知道还能不能活。)

最开心一次,是手机坏了。(掉进拖把桶没发现,主板报废。)

惭愧自己做事不专心,心疼才用了不到半年。然后,什么微信,浏览,购物,电话,统统再见吧!

那天的打扫,特别老实。

打扫完毕,提着拖把放回原处,我意外而惊喜地发现:内心一片安宁,绵绵不尽。整个人都静下来,安祥自在。

久违了!一直以来的追求,最愉悦的享受!我的感激无以言表:有了它,千山万水都去得,任何人事物都能包容。

“不将真性染尘埃,为有烟霞伴此生”。这才是真正的“烟霞”!

 

有时候,我们与内心安定的距离,只是一个手机。哪怕只丢掉一天,把欲望的触足稍稍收一下,生命本来有的清净安宁会微微地透出来。这才相信:不必向外去求,本来就在自己身上啊!

 

不由神往:当老师在四十八岁,不要了,连命都不要了的时候,达到的境界,该是何等的高邈。历代的禅师大德,或驻山川怡然自得,或在地方从容教化,能忍受常人所不能想像的苦难,心中该有着多少美不胜收的“烟霞”!

老师说:人本来是很高贵的,因为可以什么都不需要,自己归到自己。

 

来到道南,以为自己放下很多,原来不过是自欺欺人。曾为了少一点念头,拼命念佛,或把自己打扫得很累,思想总是如影随行,丝毫不停。为什么?老师的话:人生的活路太多。

所以老师再三强调做事就是修行,要吃苦,要忘我,为一切苦难众生服务。

虽未能,心向往之。

 

春雷已经震响,马上就是惊蛰。夜晚的蛙声开始热闹,鸟鸣声也婉转起来。新垒的鸟巢,躺着淡青色的鸟蛋。等到春分,红苋菜可以下种了,田间的耕作会全面展开。家家户户的柚子树,就要绽放洁白厚实的花朵,整个村庄又将沉浸在氤氲的香气中,那时每一口呼吸都是香的。

老师说:这里就是极乐世界啊!

但这个世界并不太平,贪婪无知与偏见带来的傲慢,不断地在制造不幸。很多人为欲望所驱使,忙碌而茫然。

 

有幸处在和平而安全的国度,接触到人文文化的最高峰:禅。唯有无尽的感恩:

愿世界和平,国家昌盛,人民安康。

愿中华精华人文文化的光芒,照亮世界前进的方向。

愿老师悲悯世间,长久住世。

 

尚德讀後:

讓自己本來有的真善美,契應宇宙和回歸宇宙,又超越之。入佛,常樂我淨。

二零二一年三月六日

於台灣達摩書院

 

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什麼是達摩禪?

張尚德

只要看《指月錄》談達摩的那一章,就知道什麼是達摩禪。其主要理論基礎,在《楞伽經》。

入禪的初步,絕對是要證到人無我和法無我的空性,

也就是證到世親菩薩所說的:

「因假說我法,有種種相轉。」

亦即證到四大本空,五蘊為幻。

實際的方法是:

外息諸緣,

內心無喘,

心如牆壁,

可以入道。

達摩大師之所以為禪門西天二十八祖,東土初祖,祂豈止是在少林寺面壁九年,而是歷劫修行,好多好多世信佛、禮佛、供養億萬佛,才成其為達摩禪的。

佛法的總結是《華嚴經》。善財童子五十三參所遇到的善知識,無一不是圓滿成就六波羅蜜(布施、持戒、忍辱、精進、禪定、智慧)而歷劫修行者。

尚德學達摩禪,南老師賜匾,在台灣成立達摩書院,雖任重道遠,卻事事蹉跎,慚愧無已。

 

二零二零年十一月三日

於台灣達摩書院

 

附:《指月錄》達摩祖師章

    初祖菩提達摩大師者。南天竺國香至王第三子也。姓剎帝利。本名菩提多羅。後於般若多羅尊者得法。尊者謂曰。汝於諸法已得通量。達摩者通大之義也。宜名達摩。因改今名。祖恭稟教義。服勤四十年。迨尊者順世。遂演化本國。時有二師。一名佛大先。二名佛大勝多。本與祖同學。佛陀䟦陀小乘禪觀。佛大先既遇般若[1]波羅尊者。捨小趣大。與祖竝化。時號為二甘露門矣。而佛大勝多。更分徒而為六宗。第一有相宗。第二無相宗。第三定慧宗。第四戒行宗。第五無得宗。第六寂靜宗。各封己解。別展化源。祖喟然歎曰。彼之一師已陷牛跡。況復支離而分六宗。我若不除。永纏邪見。言已微現神力。至有相宗所問曰。一切諸法何名實相。彼眾中有一尊長薩婆羅。答曰。於諸相中不互諸相。是名實相。祖曰。一切諸相而不互者。若名實相。當何定耶。彼曰。於諸相中實無有定。若定諸相。何名為實。祖曰。諸相不定。便名實相。汝今不定。當何得之。彼曰。我言不定。不說諸相。當說諸相。其義亦然。祖曰。汝言不定。當為實相。定不定故。即非實相。彼曰。定既不定。即非實相。知我非故。不定不變。祖曰。汝今不變。何名實相。已變已往。其義亦然。彼曰。不變當在。在不在故。故變實相。以定其義。祖曰。實相不變。變即非實。於有無中。何名實相。薩婆羅心知聖師懸解潛達。即以手指虗空曰。此是世間有相。亦能空故。當我此身得似此否。祖曰。若解實相。即見非相。若了非相。其色亦然。當於色中不失色體。於非相中不礙有故。若能是解。此名實相。彼眾聞已。心意朗然。欽禮信受。祖瞥然匿跡。至無相宗所而問曰。汝言無相。當何證之。彼眾中有波羅提者。答曰。我明無相。心不現故。祖曰。汝心不現。當何明之。彼曰。我明無相。心不取捨。當於明時。亦無當者。祖曰。於諸有無。心不取捨。又無當者。諸明無故。彼曰。入佛三昧。尚無所得。何況無相而欲知之。祖曰。相既不知。誰云有無。尚無所得。何名三昧。彼曰。我說不證。證無所證。非三昧故。我說三昧。祖曰。非三昧者。何當名之。汝既不證。非證何證。波羅提聞祖辨析。即悟本心。禮謝於祖。懺悔往謬。祖記曰。汝當得果。不久證之。此國有魔。非久降之。言已忽然不現。至定慧宗所問曰。汝學定慧。為一為二。彼眾中有婆蘭陀者。答曰。我此定慧。非一非二。祖曰。既非一二。何名定慧。彼曰。在定非定。處慧非慧。一即非一。二亦不二。祖曰。當一不一。當二不二。既非定慧。約何定慧。彼曰。不一不二。定慧能知。非定非慧。亦復然矣。祖曰。慧非定故。然何知哉。不一不二。誰定誰慧。婆蘭陀聞之。疑心氷釋。至第四戒行宗所問曰。何者名戒。云何名行。當此戒行為一為二。彼眾中有一賢者。答曰。一二二一。皆彼所生。依教無染。此名戒行。祖曰。汝言依教。即是有染。一二俱破何言依教。此二違背。不及於行。內外非明。何名為戒。彼曰。我有內外。彼已知竟。既得通達。便是戒行。若說違背。俱是俱非。言及清淨。即戒即行。祖曰。俱是俱非。何言清淨。既得通故。何談內外。賢者聞之即自慚服。至無得宗所問曰。汝云無得。無得何得。既無所得。亦無得得。彼眾中有寶靜者。答曰。我說無得。非無得得。當說得得。無得是得。祖曰。得既不得。得亦非得。既云得得。得得何得。彼曰見得非得。非得是得。若見不得。名為得得。祖曰。得既非得。得得無得。既無所得。當何得得。寶靜聞之頓除疑網。至寂靜宗所問曰。何名寂靜。於此法中誰靜誰寂。彼眾中有尊者答曰。此心不動。是名為寂。於法無染。名之為靜。祖曰。本心不寂。要假寂靜。本來寂故。何用寂靜。彼曰。諸法本空。以空空故。於彼空空。故名寂靜。祖曰。空空已空。諸法亦爾。寂靜無相。何靜何寂。彼尊者聞師指誨。豁然開悟。於是六眾咸誓歸依。化被南天。聲馳五印。經六十載。度無量眾。後值異見王欲毀佛法。王故祖之姪也。祖憫之欲開其蒙。而六眾亦各念。佛法有難。師將何所匡濟。祖遙知眾意。彈指應之。六眾悉聞云。此我師信響也。皆至祖所。祖曰。一翳蔽空。孰為翦之。前無相宗宗勝欲行。祖曰。汝雖辯慧。道力未全。且與王無緣。勝辭祖。竟至王所。廣陳法要。王曰。汝今所解。其法何在。宗勝曰。如王治化。當合其道。王所有道。其道何在。王曰。我所有道。將除邪法。汝所有法。將伏何人。祖不起於座。懸知宗勝義墮。召波羅提曰。宗勝不稟吾語。與王論屈。汝急往救。波羅提曰。願假神力。言訖雲起足下。遂乘以見王。王正問宗勝。忽見愕然。忘其所問。而顧波羅提曰。乘空來者是正是邪。提曰。我非邪正。而來正邪。王心若正。我無邪正。王雖驚異。而驕慢方熾。即擯宗勝令出。波羅提曰。王既有道。何擯沙門。我雖無解。願王致問。王怒而問曰。何者是佛。提曰。見性是佛。王曰。師見性否。提曰。我見佛性。王曰。性在何處。提曰。性在作用。王曰。是何作用。我今不見。提曰。今現作用。王自不見。王曰。於我有否。提曰。王若作用。無有不是。王若不用。體亦難見。王曰。若當用時。幾處出現。提曰。若出現時。當有其八。王曰。其八出現。當為我說。波羅提即說。偈曰。在胎為身。處世為人。在眼曰見。在耳曰聞。在鼻辨香。在口談論。在手執捉。在足運奔。徧現俱該沙界。收攝在一微塵。識者知是佛性。不識喚作精魂。王聞偈已。心即開悟。悔謝前非。咨詢法要。王復問波羅提。師承為誰。提曰。大王之叔菩提達摩也。王聞遽勑近臣。迎祖至王宮。祖為王懺悔往非。王聞泣謝。隨詔宗勝歸國。近臣曰。宗勝被謫時。已捐軀投崖矣。祖曰。勝尚在。召之當至。初勝受擯。耻不能正王。遂投身危崖。俄有神人。以手捧承。置於巖上。勝曰。我忝沙門。當與正法為主。不能抑絕王非。是以捐身。自責。神何佑助。願示所以。於是神人乃說偈曰。師壽於百歲。八十而造非。為近至尊故。熏修而入道。雖具少智慧。而多有彼我。所見諸賢等。未甞生珍敬。二十年功德。其心未恬靜。聰明輕慢故。而獲至於此。得王不敬者。常感果如是。自今不疎怠。不久成奇智。諸聖悉存心。如來亦復爾。勝聞偈欣然。遂宴坐巖間。至是王遣使山中召勝。祖謂王曰。知勝來乎。王曰未知。祖曰。再命乃來耳。使者至山。而勝辭。果再命乃至 祖念東震旦國。佛記後五百歲。般若智燈運光於彼。遂囑弟子不若蜜多羅。住天竺傳法。而躬至震旦。乃辭祖塔。別學侶。且謂王曰。勤修白業。吾去一九即回。祖泛重溟。凡三周寒暑。達於南海。實梁普通七年庚子歲。九月二十一日也。廣州刺史蕭昂。具禮迎供。表聞武帝。帝遣使齋詔迎請。以十月一日至金陵。帝問曰。朕即位以來。造寺寫經度僧。不可勝紀。有何功德。祖曰。竝無功德。帝曰。何以無功德。祖曰。此但人天小果有漏之因。如影隨形。雖有非實。帝曰。如何是真功德。祖曰。淨智妙圓。體自空寂。如是功德不以世求。帝又問。如何是聖諦第一義。祖曰。廓然無聖。帝曰。對朕者誰。祖曰不識。帝不悟。

祖知機不契。是月十九日。潛回江北。十一月二十三日。屆洛陽。寓止嵩山少林寺。面壁而坐。終日默然。人莫之測。謂之壁觀婆羅門。有僧神光。久居伊洛。博覽群籍。善談玄理。每歎曰。孔老之教。禮術風規。莊易之書。未盡妙理。近聞達摩大士。住止少林。至人不遙。當造玄境。遂詣祖參承。祖常端坐面壁。莫聞誨勵。光自惟曰。昔人求道。敲骨取髓。刺血濟饑。布髮掩泥。投崖飼虎。古尚若此。我又何人。值大雪。光夜侍立。遲明積雪過膝。立愈恭。祖顧而憫之。問曰。汝久立雪中。當求何事。光悲淚曰。惟願和尚慈悲。開甘露門。廣度群品。祖曰。諸佛無上妙道。曠劫精勤。難行能行。非忍而忍。豈以小德小智輕心慢心。欲冀真乘。徒勞勤苦。光聞祖誨勵。潛取利刀。自斷左臂。置於祖前。祖知是法器。乃曰。諸佛最初求道。為法忘形。汝今斷臂吾前。求亦可在。祖遂因與易名曰慧可。乃曰。諸佛法印即得聞乎。祖曰。諸佛法印。匪從人得。可曰。我心未寧。乞師與安。祖曰。將心來與汝安可良久曰。覔心了不可得。祖曰。我與汝安心竟。

越九年。欲返天竺。命門人曰。時將至矣。汝等盍言所得乎。有道副對曰。如我所見。不執文字。不離文字。而為道用。祖曰。汝得吾皮。尼總持曰。我今所解。如慶喜見阿閦佛國。一見更不再見。祖曰。汝得吾肉。道育曰。四大本空。五陰非有。而我見處。無一法可得。祖曰。汝得吾骨。最後慧可禮拜依位而立。祖曰。汝得吾髓。乃顧慧可而告之曰。昔如來以正法眼。付迦葉大士。展轉囑累而至於我。我今付汝。汝當護持。并授汝袈裟以為法信。各有所表。宜可知矣。可曰。請師指陳。祖曰。內傳法印以契證心。外付袈裟以定宗旨。後代澆薄。疑慮競生。云吾西天之人。言汝此方之子。馮何得法。以何證之。汝今受此衣法。却後難生。但出此衣并吾法偈。用以表明。其化無礙。至吾滅後二百年。衣止不傳。法周沙界。明道者多。行道者少。說理者多。通理者少。潛符密證千萬有餘。汝當闡揚。勿輕未悟。一念回機。便同本得。聽吾偈曰。吾本來茲土。傳法救迷情。一花開五葉。結果自然成。祖又曰。吾有楞伽經四卷。亦用付汝。即是如來心地要門。令諸眾生開示悟入。吾自到此。凡五度中毒。我甞自出而試之置石。石裂。緣吾本離南印。來此東土。見赤縣神州。有大乘氣象。遂踰海越漠。為法求人。際會未諧。如愚若訥。今得汝傳授。吾意已終。言已。乃與徒眾。往禹門千聖寺。止三日。有期城太守楊衒之。早慕佛乘。問祖曰。西天五印師承為祖。其道如何。祖曰。明佛心宗。行解相應。名之曰祖。又問。此外如何。祖曰。須明他心。知其今古。不厭有無。於法無取。不賢不愚。無迷無悟。若能是解。故稱為祖。又曰。弟子歸心三寶。亦有年矣。而智慧昏蒙。尚迷真理。適聽師言。罔知攸措。願師慈悲開示宗旨。祖知懇到。即說偈曰。亦不覩惡而生嫌。亦不觀善而勤措。亦不捨智而近愚。亦不拋迷而就悟。達大道兮過量。通佛心兮出度。不與凡聖同躔。超然名之曰祖。衒之聞偈。悲喜交并。曰願師久住世間。化導群有。祖曰。吾即逝矣。不可久留。根性萬差。多逢愚難。衒之曰。未審何人。弟子為師除得否。祖曰。吾以傳佛秘密。利益迷塗。害彼自安。必無此理。衒之曰。師若不言。何表通變觀照之力。祖不獲已。乃為讖曰。江槎分玉浪。管炬開金鎖。五口相共行。九十無彼。我。衒之莫測。禮辭而去。時魏氏奉釋。禪雋如林。光統律師流支三藏者。僧中鸞鳳。而議多與祖相違。祖玄風所被。有識咸歸。彼徒生嫉。數加毒藥。莫能中傷。至第六度。以化緣既畢。遂端居而逝。塟熊耳山。起塔定林寺。其年魏使宋雲。[-+]嶺回。見祖手携隻履翩翩而逝。雲問師何往。祖曰。西天去。雲歸具說其事。及門人啟壙。棺空惟隻履存焉。詔取遺履少林寺供養。至唐開元十五年丁卯。為信道者竊在五臺。今不知所在。

 

 

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給道友的話

張尚德

各位道友:

每逢佳節倍思親,真的非常懷念、掛念、想念你們。

流行病久了,俺是逺望故鄉不可得,真是長安不見使人愁也!這些年來,我非常感謝有緣分在湘潭成立禪門文化的道南書院。

湘潭歷代出現過四十位以上的大禪師,六祖傳人懷讓就在湘潭建立過白雲寺,近代的虛雲和八指頭陀都是湘潭和全國的佛門龍象,尚徳的認識是如果禪門文化鼎盛,個人、家庭、團體、社會、國家和天下一定能歸到人性本來的善良、高貴、平靜與安定。我真的在無盡的懷念中,有說不完的話。

佛法要超越一切,希望你們真能離苦得樂。禪門文化最後是歸到重重無盡、無盡重重的華嚴。祝福各位好好和《華嚴經》所說的諸神與諸佛同在!靜心的體會諸佛菩薩隨時隨地都在發光中,加持我們;深深地在智慧與行動上深化自己,與諸佛菩薩的慈悲喜捨和文殊菩薩的智慧、以及普賢菩薩的行願相應。

除了相信佛與菩薩外也要相信神,華嚴經不僅是歸到佛也是歸到神的。孟子説:「聖而為神」,釋迦牟尼佛一再説「內證聖智即為佛」,現在世亂大家不要懼怕。我忽然想起了辜汪會談辜振甫先生的公子前台灣水泥公司董事長,成允道友,曾在湘潭道南書院三更半夜向我說:「中國是永遠有希望的,因為有儒釋道三家。」

儒家成聖,隨心所欲不逾矩。

道家齊物,道通為一而逍遙遊。

佛家在法界緣起中,四無量心而遊戲三昧。

諸位道友,我們一起放下自己不應該有的自私與愚昧,來為中華民族的復興和人類的和平努力、奉獻到底。

我們都生活在同一個地球和宇宙中,往聖先賢都在強調,人類要相親相愛。讓我們在心靈深處中,把真正的愛掏出來,將真愛化為行動,讓你我他都能離苦得樂,實現〈禮運大同篇〉所說的:

大道之行也

天下為公。

祝福!祝福!千萬祝福!

 

尚德 於台灣達摩書院

二零二零年十月一日

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超越悠悠

張尚德

            陳子昂說:

 

前不見古人,

後不見來者。

念天地之悠悠,

獨愴然而淚下。

這種說法未必為對。

天地與我並生,萬物與我為一,一切一切本來統一在一起。

所以《金剛經》說:

「一合相」。

看通了,看透了,無法無我了,一切的悠悠,也不悠悠。活著就成為一種超越與享受。本來悠悠,也不悠悠。

重要的是:

要超越悠悠

 

尚德 於台灣達摩書院

二零二零年五月十三日