达摩书院

【最新更新】 

唯識新引

《成唯識論》新解 

唯識學會創辦人張尚德述

   達摩書院副院長黃高証

274

努力破除無明

漏盡通

《成唯識論》卷九

III 十重障

一異生性障

十重障者。一異生性障。謂二障中分別起者。依彼種立異生性故。

二乘見道現在前時。唯斷一種名得聖性。菩薩見道現在前時具斷二種名得聖性。

二真見道現在前時。彼二障種必不成就。

猶明與闇定不俱生。如秤兩頭低昂時等。諸相違法理必應然。是故二性無俱成失。

無間道時已無惑種。何用復起解脫道為?

斷惑證滅期心別故。

為捨彼品麁重性故。

無間道時雖無惑種。而未捨彼無堪任性。為捨此故起解脫道。及證此品擇滅無為。

雖見道生亦斷惡趣諸業果等。而今且說能起煩惱。是根本故。

由斯初地說斷二愚及彼麁重。一執著我法愚。即是此中異生性障。二惡趣雜染愚。即是惡趣諸業果等。

(述記:解深密.七十八等說。)

應知愚品總說為愚。後准此釋。

或彼唯說利鈍障品俱起二愚。

彼麁重言顯彼二種。或二所起無堪任性。

(述記:彼言麁重。麁重者何。顯即是彼二愚之種。前二是現行。麁重是種故 )

如入二定說斷苦根。所斷苦根雖非現種而名麁重。此亦應然。後麁重言例此應釋。

(述記:瑜伽論第十一說。第二定斷苦根。苦根種子初定已斷。今者斷彼苦根麁重。說第二禪斷彼苦根故。後諸地麁重准此為二解。)

雖初地所斷實通二障。而異生性障意取所知。說十無明非染污故。無明即是十障品愚。

(述記:世親攝論第七卷說。)

二乘亦能斷煩惱障。彼是共故。非此所說。

又十無明不染污者。唯依十地修所斷說。

雖此位中亦伏煩惱斷彼麁重。而非正意。不斷隨眠。故此不說。

理實初地修道位中亦斷俱生所知一分。然今且說最初斷者。後九地斷准此應知。

住滿地中時既淹久。理應進斷所應斷障。不爾。三時道應無別。

(述記:住.滿地中時既淹久。謂二僧祇。理更應斷。)

故說菩薩得現觀已。復於十地修道位中唯修永滅所知障道。留煩惱障助願受生。非如二乘速趣圓寂。故修道位不斷煩惱。將成佛時方頓斷故。

(述記:引對法十四文為證。)

二邪行障

二邪行障。謂所知障中俱生一分及彼所起悞犯三業。

彼障二地極淨尸羅。入二地時便能永斷。由斯二地說斷二愚及彼麁重。一微細悞犯愚。即是此中俱生一分。二種種業趣愚。即彼所起悞犯三業。

或唯起業不了業愚。

三闇鈍障

三闇鈍障。謂所知障中俱生一分。令所聞思修法忘失。彼障三地勝定總持及彼所發殊勝三慧。入三地時便能永斷。

由斯三地說斷二愚及彼麁重。一欲貪愚。即是此中能障勝定及修慧者。

彼昔多與欲貪俱故名欲貪愚。今得勝定及修所成。彼既永斷欲貪隨伏。此無始來依彼轉故。

二圓滿聞持陀羅尼愚。即是此中能障總持聞思慧者。

四微細煩惱現行障

四微細煩惱現行障。謂所知障中俱生一分。第六識俱身見等攝。。最下品故。不作意緣故。遠隨現行故。說名微細。

(述記:不作意緣故名下品。即是任運生故名下品。非如見斷強思等方生故。)

(述記:又遠隨現行故。即無始來隨逐於身。不捨於身名下品。)

彼障四地菩提分法。入四地時便能永斷。

彼昔多與第六識中任運而生執我見等同體起故。說煩惱名。今四地中既得無漏菩提分法。彼便永滅。此我見等亦永不行。

(述記:問。何故初二三地不斷我見等耶?答。非障法故。)

初二三地行施戒修相同世間。四地修得菩提分法方名出世。故能永害二身見等。

(述記:初地行施。二地行戒。三地行修。相同世間。世間有情多作此三福業事故。未能修證菩提分法。)

(述記:二身見者。謂初見道已離第六識中分別身見。今此後離第六識中俱生身見盡處。總說名二身見。)

寧知此與第六識俱?

第七識俱執我見等與無漏道性相違故。八地以去方永不行。七地已來猶得現起。與餘煩惱為依持故。

此麁彼細。伏有前後。故此但與第六相應。

身見等言亦攝無始所知障攝定愛法愛。彼定法愛三地尚增。入四地時方能永斷。菩提分法特違彼故。

由斯四地說斷二愚及彼麁重。一等至愛愚。即是此中定愛俱者。二法愛愚。即是此中法愛俱者。所知障攝二愚斷故煩惱二愛亦永不行。

五於下乘般涅槃障

五於下乘般涅槃障。謂所知障中俱生一分。令厭生死樂趣涅槃。同下二乘厭苦欣滅。彼障五地無差別道。入五地時便能永斷。由斯五地說斷二愚及彼麁重。一純作意背生死愚。即是此中厭生死者。二純作意向涅槃愚。即是此中樂涅槃者。

(述記:生死涅槃既無差別。何得有厭復有欣耶?)

六麁相現行障

六麁相現行障。謂所知障中俱生一分。執有染淨麁相現行。彼障六地無染淨道。入六地時便能永斷。

(述記:世親及此論。望後七地說為麁相。亦不相違。由前地觀四諦故有二染二淨。)

由斯六地說斷二愚及彼麁重。一現觀察行流轉愚。即是此中執有染者。諸行流轉染分攝故。二相多現行愚。即是此中執有淨者。取淨相故。相觀多行。未能多時住無相觀。

(述記:即後得智作有相淨觀也。)

七細相現行障

七細相現行障。謂所知障中俱生一分。執有生滅細相現行。彼障七地妙無相道。入七地時便能永斷。

由斯七地說斷二愚及彼麁重。一細相現行愚。即是此中執有生者。猶取流轉細生相故。二純作意求無相愚。即是此中執有滅者。尚取還滅細滅相故。

純於無相作意勤求。未能空中起有勝行。

(述記:所言空者。無相空理。於空中作有行。即真觀中起於有觀。)

八無相中作加行障

八無相中作加行障。謂所知障中俱生一分。令無相觀不任運起。

前之五地有相觀多無相觀少。於第六地有相觀少無相觀多。第七地中純無相觀。雖恒相續而有加行。

由無相中有加行故。未能任運現相及土。如是加行障八地中無功用道。故若得入第八地時便能永斷。彼永斷故得二自在。

(述記:言現相者。即是隨欲現何相者即能現之。如現金銀等相珠寶等相。皆能現故。……土自在者。隨欲現於大小土等。現金銀等色。即能現故。)

由斯八地說斷二愚及彼麁重。一於無相作功用愚。二於相自在愚。令於相中不自在故。此亦攝土相一分故。

八地以上純無漏道任運起故。三界煩惱永不現行。第七識中細所知障猶可現起。生空智果不違彼故。

 

英譯(韋達)

III. THE TEN AVARANAS

The Ten Avaranas (barriers) are:

1. Prthagjanatvavarana, the barrier constituted by the nature of Prthagjana (ordinary person unenlightened by Buddhism).

(1)   This barrier is formed by those constituent parts of the two Avaranas, klesavarana and jneyavarana, which arise ‘by speculation and discrimination': their Bijas are the basis on which the nature of Prthagjana is established.

(2)   The adepts of the two Vehicles, when they attain Darsanamarga (insight into Truth), cut off only the Bijas of klesavarana: they become from that moment Aryas (saints or sages): they are said to have obtained the Arya-nature(Aryagotra). The Bodhisattvas, when they attain Darsanamarga, cut off the Bijas of both Avaranas: thenceforth they become Aryas, and are said to have acquired the Arya-nature.

(3)   When true Darsanamarga is attained, whether by adepts of the two Vehicles or by Bodhisattvas, the Bijas of the Avaranas which the Arya-path has destroyed will definitely not continue to manifest themselves, the reason being that the Aiya-nature and the Prthagjana-nature cannot exist simultaneously, just as light and darkness cannot co-exist, and just as, in the case of a balance, when one side of the bar rises, the other side automatically falls. Such is the law governing contradictory dharmas. Therefore our system does not present the erroneous idea that the nature of Prthagjana and that of Arya should be simultaneous.

(4)   [Objection by the Sarvastivadin: For us, on the Anantaryamarga (the uninterrupted path), there is still some klesa that may arise: hence the necessity of the Vimuktimarga (the path of liberation), which counteracts klesas]; but, for you, at the moment of Anantaryamarga, the Bijas of klesa have disappeared. What, then, is the use of Vimuktimarga?

First explanation. - One requires the two paths by reason of the duality of aspiration in the preparatory stage. The Anantaryamarga is required when the aspiration is for the cutting of klesas, while the Vimuktimarga is required when the aspiration is for the destruction of klesas.

Second explanation, which is better. - One produces the Vimuktimarga to reject to dausthulya or the 'crude-heavy nature'. Although at the moment of Anantaryamarga there are no more Bijas of klesa, the yogin has not yet abandoned the quality of inaptitude which proceeds from klesas. It is to abandon this inaptitude that one produces the Vimuktimarga and realizes that unconditioned non-active unity which is the 'discrimination-annihilation' (Pratisamkhyanirodha) of such a category of klesas.

(5)   Although the Darsanamarga, on being born, also cuts off 'the deeds and the fruits of bad destinies, etc., nevertheless the definition which has just been given [that 'the Darsanamarga destroys the nature of Prthagjana'] aims only at the klesas [of Klesavarana and Jneyavarana] which produce these deeds and fruits, because they are the root.

In fact, as taught in the Samdhinirmocana Sutra, the Bodhisattva cuts off in the first Bhumi two delusions (Mohas) and their dausthulya. These two delusions are: a. the delusion of clinging to the Atman and to dharmas as real entities; that which, properly speaking, is the self-nature of Prthagjana; b. the delusion which comprises the impurity or defilement of bad destinies, that is to say, 'deeds and fruits of bad destiny', etc.

Here, as further on, delusion means the entire category of delusion.

Or else, the two delusions refer solely to those two, one 'sharp' or intense and the other 'dull' or weak, arising simultaneously with the two Avaranas.

What is one to understand by the dausthulya (crude and heavy elements) of the two delusions?

It means the Bijas of the two delusions [The two delusions are actual; their dausthulya is their Bijas], or perhaps the inaptitude produced by the two delusions. In a similar sense it is said that entrance into the second Dhyana cuts off the root of suffering of Kamadhatu. In truth, the root of suffering which is cut off in the second Dhvana is neither actual nor in the state of Bija; it has already ceased to exist, its Bijas having already been cut off in the first Dhyana. In the second Dhyana there remains only the 'inaptitude' named dausthulya. It is the same here.

These remarks are valid for the dausthulyas of other Bhumis.

(6)   Although the first Bhumi cuts off the two Avaranas, nevertheless, according to the intention of the text which says that the first Bhumi cuts off the nature of Prthagjana, etc., it is merely a question of Jneyavarana, not of Klesavarana.

Vasubandhu in his Samgraha, 7, says in effect: 'The ten Avidyas (ignorance) are not defiled [from the point of view of the two Vehicles]'. These ten Avidyas are the ten pairs of delusions which are being studied here.

Why are these Avidyas considered as non-defiled, that is to say, as corresponding to Jneyavarana? - Because the two Vehicles are also capable of cutting off Klesavarana. The cutting off of Klesavarana is therefore common to the two Vehicles and to Bodhisattvas. Now our text is concerned with that which belongs especially to Bodhisattvas.

Further, this formula: 'The ten Avidyas are not defiled' refers to the Avidyas which are cut off by meditation and moral cultivation in the course of the ten Bhumis. It is true that, in this stage, the Bodhisattva also suppresses his klesas and cuts off the dausthulya which they provoke; but the text has not that in view, because a Bodhisattva does not cut off the anusayas (or Bijas) of klesas.

(7) In fact, in the Bhavanamarga of the first Bhumi (that is to say, after the initial stage which is Darsanamarga), the Bodhisattva cuts off a part of innate Jneyavarana; but our text mentions only that which is cut off right at the beginning of the Bhumi, [that is to say, the nature of Prthagjana which is Jneyavarana of speculation]. Similarly, this applies to the 'cutting off' effected in the nine other Bhumis: it is always a question of that which is cut off at the beginning of the Bhumi. During the very long period (two Asamkhyeyas) spent in the Land of Residence and the Land of Achievement of each Bhumi, the Bodhisattva should cut off progressively that part of his innate Jneyavarana which must be cut off in each Bhumi, On the contrary hypothesis, there would be no difference between the Path and the Lands of Entry, Residence, and Achievement.

The Abhidharma, 14, says, therefore, that the Bodhisattva, after having obtained the Abhisamaya (path of insight), and in the course of the Bhavanamarga of the ten Bhumis, cultivates only the path which destroys for ever his Jneyavarana and preserves the Klesavarana that sustains his pious vow to return to birth again. Unlike the adept of the two Vehicles 'who rushes with all speed to his goal of Eternal Rest', he does not cut off Klesavarana in the course of Bhavanamarga. It is only at the moment of attaining Buddhahood that he cuts it off instantaneously.

2. Mithyapratipattyavarana, the barrier of bad or perverse conduct

 This refers to a part of innate Jneyavarana with the three offensive deeds (of body, speech, and thought) which produce this part.

This barrier impedes the three pure moralities (sila) of the second Bhumi. It is absolutely cut off in the 'stage of entry' of this Bhumi. That is why the Yogasastra teaches that the second Bhumi cuts off two delusions with their dausthulya (Bijas): (1) the delusion of committing slight offences, that is to say, a part of innate Jneyabarana; (2) the delusion of performing various kinds of wrong or offensive deeds, that is to say, the three offensive deeds which produce first delusion.

Or else,according to another theory, the two delusion are: (1) the delusion: that gives rise to bad acts; (2) the delusion that is ignorant of the nature of deeds.

3. Dhandhatvavarana, the barrier of unintelligence and failure of memory. ' This is a part of innate Jneyavarana which causes failure of memory of the dharmas of audition, of reflection, and of meditation.

This barrier impedes the Samadhi-Dharani of the third Bhumi and the three excellent Prajnas which they produce. It is absolutely cut off in the stage of entry of this Bhumi.

Therefore the third Bhumi cuts off two delusions with their dausthulya:

(1)   Kamaragamoha, the delusion of desire-covetousness which impedes Samadhi and Prajna-of-meditation. It is given the name of Kamaragamoha because, formerly, it was habitually associated with the klesa called Kamaraga (desire of the five objects of enjoyment). In the third Bhumi, where the yogin obtains Samadhi and the Prajna-of-meditation, this delusion is absolutely cut off, and, at the same time, the Kamaraga klesa is suppressed, for, since before the beginning of time, this klesa has taken as supporting basis that delusion of desire-covetousness which is a part of Jneyavarana.

(2)   Dharanisrutaparipurimoha, the delusion of ignoring or disregarding the perfect Dharanis of audition and moral cultivation. This delusion impedes the Dharanis and the Prajnas of audition and of reflection, [and also the Prajna of meditation].

4. Suksmaklesasamudacaravarana, the barrier which consists in the manifestation of subtle klesas.

This is a part of innate Jneyavarana which comprises the erroneous ‘I-and-mine' view (satkayadrsti), etc., of the sixth consciousness. It is said of this klesa that it is very subtle. This is because it belongs to the lowest category; because it does not proceed from an act of attention, being born spontaneously; and because it has been in manifestation since before the beginning of time.

This barrier impedes the bodhipaksika (conditions leading to Bodhi or Buddhahood) of the fourth Bhumi. It is absolutely cut off at the moment of entrance into that Bhumi.

It is given the name of klesa, because, formerly, it was spontaneously born of the same nature as the klesa of Atmagrahadrsti (self-clinging-and-belief), etc., which arise spontaneously in the sixth consciousness. - Now, since the Yogin has, in the fourth Bhumi, obtained the pure bodhipaksika dharmas, this barrier is absolutely cut off; and it follows that the klesa of atmadrsti (self-belief), etc., will never again grow into manifestation.

Why is Atmadrsti not cut off in the first, second and third Bhumis?

This Avarana is not cut off in the first three Bhumis because it does not constitute any barrier to their own dharmas.

In the course of the first three Bhumis, the Bodhisattva practises charity, morality, and meditation: These practices are similar to those of the external world, where sentient beings practise them also. [In these three Bhumis the Bodhisattva is not yet capable of cultivating the dharmas of Bodhi.] Now, in the fourth Bhumi, he practises the bodhipaksika dharmas, and it is because of this that the fourth Bhumi is called the 'supramundane' Bhumi. In consequence of this, he destroys absolutely the two satkayadrstis, etc. [The Bodhisattva destroys the satkayadrsti of 'speculation' of the. sixth consciousness upon entry into the first Bhumi; he destroys the innate satkayadrsti upon entry into the fourth.]

How do we know that the satkayadrsti destroyed here is the satkayadrsti associated with the sixth consciousness?

The satkayadrsti associated with the seventh consciousness is in contradiction to the nature of the pure path; it ceases to appear in the eighth Bhumi, but continues to appear in the seventh, serving as the supporting basis for the other klesas (anger, covetousness, etc.). The satkayadrsti of the sixth consciousness is crude and is therefore suppressed first; that of the seventh is subtle and is therefore suppressed later. Hence the satkayadrsti destroyed here in the fourth Bhumi is associated only with the sixth consciousness.

By the expression 'satkayadrsti, etc.', one must understand [not only the atmadrsti, atmiyadrsti, antagrahadrsti, atmamana, atmasneha and the Upaklesas,1 but] also the samadhisneha, 'attachment to meditation', and the dharmasneha, 'attachment to Dharma', which are part of the eternal Jneyavarana, and which have been increasing, as they should be, in the course of the first three Bhumis. They are absolutely cut off upon entry into the fourth Bhumi [where the Bodhisattva acquires pure meditation and pure Dharma, and consequently mastery of them], because they are in contradiction to the bodhipaksika dharmas.

Consequently the fourth Bhumi cuts off two delusions and their dausthulya (inaptitudes):

(1)   The delusion of attachment to meditation (samapatti), accompanied by samadhisneha.

(2)   The delusion of attachment to Dharma, accompanied by dharmasneha.

In fact, by the abandonment of these two delusions which are part of Jneyavarana, the two snehas or attachments, which are klesas, will never again enter into operation since their supporting basis no longer exists.

5.     Hinayanaparinirvanavarana, the barrier that consists in attachment to the Parinirvana of the Hinayana School.

It is a part of innate Jneyavarana, which causes the Bodhisattva to have a horror of Samsara (rounds of birth and death) and aspire after Nirvana, just as people of the two lower Vehicles have a horror of suffering and rejoice in its destruction.

This barrier impedes the path of non-differentiation of the fifth Bhumi (which path recognizes the identity and equality of Samsara and Nirvana). When one enters the fifth Bhumi, it is absolutely cut off.

Therefore the fifth Bhumi cuts off two delusions with their dausthulya (inaptitudes): (1) the delusion of conceiving ideas for the sole purpose of turning away from birth and death; this is the delusion of horror of Samsara; (2) the delusion of conceiving ideas for the sole purposes of turning towards Nirvana; this is the delusion of predilection for Nirvana.

6.     Sthulanimittasamudacaravarana, the barrier which consists in the presence of crude characteristics.

This is a part of innate Jneyavarana and consists in the erroneous belief that there are in manifestation crude characteristics of impurity and purity. [One believes that Reality or Tathata also presents the characteristics of impurity and purity, because, in the previous Bhumis, one has considered four Noble Truths, two impurities and two purities].

This Avarana impedes the 'path of neither-impurity-nor-purity' of the sixth Bhumi and is absolutely cut off upon entry into this Bhumi.

Therefore the sixth Bhumi cuts off two delusions with their dausthulya (inaptitudes):

(1)   The delusion of perceiving and examining the evolution of the Samskaras, that is to say, the functioning of mind in its processes regarding like and dislike, good and evil, etc. This delusion admits that samklesa (impurity) is present, for the evolution of the Samskaras is comprised in the 'impurity’ category.

(2)   The delusion of believing in the manifestation of numerous characteristics. This delusion admits that vyavadana (purity) is present, because one adheres to the notion of purity. The contemplation accompanied by nimitta (or notion), [by the Prsthalabdhajnana which cherishes the notion of purity], is too frequently practised with the result that the yogin cannot reside for any length of time in nirnimitta contemplation, that is to say, contemplation accompanied by no concepts of purity.

7.     Suksmaninimittasamudacaravarana, the barrier which consists of the presence of subtle characteristics.

This is a part of innate Jneyavarana and consists in the erroneous belief that there are in manifestation subtle characteristics of birth and destruction.

This barrier impedes the 'wonderful path free from characteristics' of the seventh Bhumi, and is absolutely cut off upon entry into this Bhumi.

It follows from this that the seventh Bhumi cuts off two delusions with their dausthulya:

(1)   The delusion of believing in the presence and manifestation of subtle characteristics. This delusion admits that there is birth, because one continues to admit the manifestation of subtle characteristics of birth.

(2)   The delusion of conceiving ideas for the sole purpose of seeking freedom from characteristics. This delusion admits that there is destruction because, admitting the existence of birth, one continues to cherish with stronger reasons the subtle notion of destruction; one seeks, with intense mental activity and exclusive, assiduous application, freedom from characteristics of all kinds (animitta); one is still incapable of introducing the contemplation of existence in the contemplation of the Void or Reality.

8.     Nirnimittabhisamskaravarana, the barrier which consists in indulging in mental functions in a contemplation that should be free from concepts or characteristics.

This is a part of innate Jneyavarana, which prevents nirnimitta contemplation (i.e., contemplation free from concepts) from proceeding spontaneously.

In the first five Bhumis, contemplation with notions (sanimitta) is normal; contemplation without notions is rare. In the sixth Bhumi, contemplation with notions is rare while contemplation without notions is normal. In the seventh Bhumi, [as one has cut off the subtle nimittas of birth and destruction], contemplation is exclusively nirnimitta., that is to say, entirely free from notions, and makes a continuous series: however, at this stage, preparatory efforts are still required [because the Bodhisattva has not yet mastered this contemplation].

Inasmuch as preparatory efforts are still necessary in this nirnimitta contemplation, the Bodhisattva is incapable of manifesting spontaneously different kinds of phenomena [e.g., forms of gold, silver, jewels, etc.], and various 'lands' [of different sizes, colours, etc.], according to his desires.

These preparatory efforts impede the anabhoga path (the path of effortlessness) of the eighth Bhumi; it is absolutely cut off upon entry into this Bhumi. At the same time, the Bodhisatta obtains two masteries (mastery of phenomena and mastery of lands).

It follows from this that the eighth Bhumi cuts off two delusions with their dausthulya (inaptitudes):

(1)   The delusion of making mental efforts in a contemplation that is, in its essential nature, free from notions.

(2)   The delusion of not achieving mastery with reference to phenomena (gold, silver, etc.) In other words, this delusion prevents one from achieving mastery of phenomena: this expression includes lands which are a part of phenomena.

From the eighth Bhumi and above, the exclusively pure path appears spontaneously with the result that the klesas of the three Dhatus will never again enter into activity. However, the subtle Jneyavarana of the seventh consciousness (dharma-grasping Manas) can still manifest itself, for the non-discriminative wisdom of Pudgalasunyata and its fruit (prsthalabdhajnana) are compatible with this Jneyavarana.

 

 

 

1 See Sections on Klesas and Upaklesas of the sixth Consciousness in Book IV.

 

 

中譯(黃高証)

III. 十重障

十重障是:

1. 異生性障,異生性(未受佛法點化的凡夫性)形成的障礙。

1) 此障是由煩惱、所知二障中的知見分別而起,依其障種,立異生性。

2)二乘行者見道(洞察真理)時,唯斷除煩惱障種,初入聖位(成聖成賢),故稱為獲得聖性。菩薩見道時,斷除煩惱、所知二障種子,初入聖位,稱為獲得聖性。

3)無論二乘還是菩薩,在真見道時,必定不會繼續形成彼二障種子,原因是,聖性和異生性不能同時存在,就像光明和黑暗不能并存一樣,又如天平的兩端,一邊升高時,另一邊必降低,這就是相違法的道理。因此,以為凡聖二性可以并存,這是不對的,絕非唯識本義。

4) (薩婆多部主張:無間道時,還有惑種生起,要到解脫道才可對治;)但唯識的說法是,在無間道時已無煩惱種子,那麼還需要解脫道做什麼呢?

第一種解釋:由於階段目標不同,故分為二道:於無間道斷煩惱,於解脫道滅煩惱。

第二種解釋說得更好:立解脫道,是要捨彼惑的粗重性。雖然在無間道時沒有惑種,但行者仍有「無堪任性」。為捨無堪任性,故入解脫道,證得此品的擇滅無為。

5)雖然在見道時,能斷惡趣諸業果,現在只強調見道時滅異生性,這是因為(煩惱障和所知障的)煩惱乃業果的根本,能造業生果。

事實上,正如《解深密經》所言,初地菩薩斷二種愚及彼粗重。二愚是: a 執著我法愚;確切地說,就是這裏所說的異生性障;b 惡趣雜染愚:即惡趣之業果等。

在此可以進一步說,凡是與「愚」相關的所有品類,全說為「愚」。

或說,二愚唯指身見等利使或貪瞋等鈍使之愚,與二障相應俱起。

如何理解二愚粗重?

「粗重」者,或指二愚的種子 [二愚為現行,粗重是它們的種子],或指彼二愚所起的無堪任性,就像說第二禪時斷苦根。事實上,在第二禪斷的苦根既不是現行,也不是種子。苦根現行既已不存在,它的種子在初禪也已斷。在第二禪所斷的,唯有其無堪任性,名之為粗重。至於二愚粗重,同理可知。

這些道理適用於其他諸地的粗重。

6) 儘管初地所斷,通於二障。然而,論典唯說初地斷異生性障,乃取所知障意,而非煩惱障。

世親於《攝大乘論釋》卷7中說:“十種無明(從二乘的角度來看),非為染污。”十種無明即是這裡說的十障品愚。

為什麼這些愚被認為是與所知障相應,屬非染污?答:由於二乘也能斷煩惱障。因此,對二乘和菩薩來說,斷煩惱障是共法。本論主要在講菩薩道的不共法。

此外,所謂“十無明不染污”,是指在十地歷程中,修所斷的「無明」。誠然,在此階段,菩薩亦可伏煩惱,斷彼粗重。但此地菩薩尚未斷煩惱的隨眠(或種子),故本論不提。

7) 事實上,在初地的修道位中(也就是在入心之後,即在見道位之後),同樣能夠斷除一部分俱生所知障,但現在唯說初地入心所斷障 [即分別起的異生性障]。此理適用於其他九地斷障,也就是主要討論諸地入心斷除之障。菩薩在諸地的住心和滿心,歷久遠劫(兩個阿僧祇劫),在每一地中,逐步斷除部分的俱生所知障。否則,把諸地分為入、住與出三階段,有何區別。

《對法論》卷14說,菩薩成就六現觀中的四、五兩現觀(現觀智諦現觀、現觀邊智諦現觀)以後,在十地的修道位中,唯致力於永滅所知障道,保留俱生煩惱障,以助悲願受生。這有別於二乘速斷煩惱而趣涅槃,所以菩薩在修道位中不永斷煩惱障,要到將成佛時,才一齊頓斷。

2. 邪行障,惡行或妄行的障礙

這是指所知障中俱生的一部分,以及由此障所誤犯的三業(身、語、意)。

這一障阻礙了第二地的三種淨戒。入二地時便能永斷此障。這就是為什麼《瑜伽論》說,菩薩進入二地要斷二愚及其粗重(種子):(1)微細誤犯愚,也就是所知障中俱生的一分;(2)種種業趣愚,即由前愚導致三業犯戒。

又有另一說法,這二愚是:(1)引起惡業的愚癡,(2) 對業行本質不明了的愚癡。

3. 闇鈍障,不智且失念所成之障,這也是俱生所知障的一部分,令聞、思、修之法忘失。

此障能阻礙第三地的勝定總持,以及由彼所起的聞、思、修等殊勝三慧。入三地時便能永遠斷除此障。

故知第三地斷二種愚及其粗重:

1)欲貪愚,能障勝定及修慧。因為過去世中,此愚常與欲貪(財色名食睡五欲)俱起。故名欲貪愚。在第三地中,行者證得無漏勝定及修所成慧,永斷彼愚,欲貪煩惱隨之被伏,因為無始以來,該煩惱便依欲貪愚(所知障的一部分)而轉。

2)圓滿聞持陀羅尼愚,此愚能障總持及聞、思所成慧 [和修所成慧]

4. 微細煩惱現行障

此亦俱生所知障的一部分,它包含了第六識相應俱生的身見等。說此煩惱「很微細」,因為是指最下品煩惱,率爾生起,不由作意,自無始以來任運現行。

此障阻礙了第四地的菩提分法(通往正覺或成佛之道)。進入四地時便能永遠斷除。

此障以「煩惱」為名,因為它往昔多與第六識中任運而生的我見等煩惱俱起。如今在四地中,行者既然修成無漏菩提分法,便能永滅此障。因此,我見等也就永遠不起現行了。

為什麼在第一、二、三地沒有斷除我見等呢?

此障在前三地未斷,是因其未對前三地法構成任何妨礙。

在前三地的過程中,菩薩布施、持戒和靜慮,這些修行與世間有情眾生的修法相似 [前三地菩薩尚未修得菩提分法] 。 如今第四地修成菩提分法,所以第四地稱為‘出世’之地。因此才能永滅二身見等 [菩薩入初地時已離分別身見,入第四地時,盡除俱生身見。]

怎麼知道這被滅的身見唯與第六識在一起?

與第七識相關聯的身見等,其性質和無漏道相矛盾,要到無漏相續的八地以後,才能永斷,不復現行。但在七地以前猶可現起,作為其他煩惱(貪、瞋等)的依持。與第六識相應的身見等,是粗顯的,故先被制伏;與第七識相應的身見等是細微的,故後被制伏。因此,在第四地中被滅的身見,唯與第六識相應。

這裏所說的身見等, [不僅指我見、我所見、邊見、我慢、我愛、隨煩惱1,也] 包括定愛、法愛,它們是俱生所知障的一部分。這種定愛、法愛在前三地的過程中還會增加,入四地時(此地菩薩於淨定和淨法皆得自在),方能永斷定愛、法愛等,因為身見等與菩提分法相牴觸。

故知第四地斷除二愚及粗重:

1)等至愛愚:伴隨著定愛的愚癡。

2)法愛愚:伴隨著法愛的愚癡。

事實上,二愚屬於所知障,它們被斷除後,煩惱障中的定愛、法愛沒有了支持基礎,亦永不現行。

5. 於下乘般涅槃障

它是俱生所知障中的一部分,使菩薩厭離生死,樂趣涅槃,就像二乘那樣,厭苦欣滅。

此障阻礙了五地「無差別道」(輪迴涅槃平等無二之道)。當進入第五地時,便能永斷此障。

故知第五地斷二種愚及其粗重(無堪任性):(1)純作意背生死愚,只想出離生死,這是畏懼輪迴的錯覺;(2)純作意向涅槃愚,這是偏執涅槃的錯覺。

6. 粗相現行障

這是所知障中俱生的一部分,錯執現行具有染淨粗相 [誤以為真如呈現染淨相,這是因為在前面諸地所觀四諦,前二為染,後二為淨]

此障阻礙了第六地無染淨的妙道,入六地時便能永斷。

故知第六地斷除二愚及其粗重(無堪任性):

1現觀察行流轉愚,也就是在心行的好惡善惡流轉中,執有染相,因為諸行流轉為有漏染分所攝

2相多現行愚。此愚過於堅持淨相的概念,遂執有淨者[後得智取淨相時,] 多作有相觀行,使行者不能長期住於無相淨觀

7. 細相現行障

也是俱生所知障中的一部分,錯執有生滅細相現行。

此愚阻礙了第七地的妙無相道,當證入第七地時,便能永斷

故知第七地斷二種愚及其粗重

1細相現行愚:抓取流轉微細生相,執有生者

2純作意求無相愚:既執有生,復更取滅之細相,執有滅者所以心行殷勤作意,追求純無相,不能在真空中,行於妙有

8. 無相中作加行障:於無相觀中殷勤加行。

此為俱生所知障中的一部分,使無相觀(從名相中解脫出來的冥想)不能任運生起

前五地多修有相觀,少修無相觀到了第六地,少修有相觀,多修無相觀。第七地 [斷了生滅細相]純無相觀,也就是完全沒有相,此觀雖恆時相續,然猶有加行  [因為七地菩薩於無相觀未得自在]

菩薩於無相中還有加行未能任運對一切莊嚴相 [例如金銀、珠寶等相] [不同大小、顏色等的] 淨穢等土,自在顯化

這些加行能障第八地的無功用道(無為道)。進入第八地時,便能永斷此障。同時,菩薩可以任運現相、現土,得二自在

故知第八地斷二種愚及其粗重

1)本來無相,枉作功用愚

2於相(如金銀等)自在愚,於身及土相,不得自在

從第八地以上,純無漏道任運現起故三界煩惱永不現起。然而,第七識(末那、法執)的微細所知障仍然可以顯現,因為八地的生空智及其果(後得智),與此所知障不相牴觸。

----------------

1 參見第四卷中關於第六識的煩惱和隨煩惱的章節。

 

尚德按:

這次《成唯識論》說到:

「又十無明不染污者,唯依十地修所斷說。」

無明有十五種:一、根本無明,二、枝末無明,三、共無明,四、不共無明,五、相應無明,六、不相應無明,七、迷理無明,八、迷事無明,九、獨頭無明,十、俱行無明,十一、覆業無明,十二、發業無明,十三、種子子時無明,十四、行業果無明,十五、惑無明。

究竟什麼是無明呢?

第一,不了解存在究竟是什麼,

其次,不了解自己究竟是什麼。

佛法講,要遍學一切法,也就是了解一切存在。不瞭解就是無明。

蘇格拉底說,要了解自己。不知道自己也是無明。

總括而言,無明就是煩惱。

煩惱從哪裡來的?

佛法說,眾生就是煩惱。在理事無礙的《華嚴經》四聖諦品,文殊菩薩講:眾生有罪。罪就是煩惱,煩惱就是罪。

細說起來,根本煩惱有六:貪、瞋、癡、慢、疑、惡見,大中小隨煩惱有二十種:忿、恨、惱、覆、誑、諂、憍、害、嫉、慳、無慚、無愧、不信、懈怠、放逸、昏沈、掉舉、失念、散亂、不正知。

既然十地菩薩才能了掉無明,在時間上究竟要多久呢?《大般若經》說:即使是發了菩提心的菩薩,要修六十八劫。一劫有好多好多億萬年。

這幾十年來,我遇到很多人要學佛。學佛,真的要從小乘開始,然後才中乘、菩薩乘、佛乘。小乘要從四禪八定的初禪,一直修到非想非非想處定,基本上,要超越貪和無明,才能成大阿羅漢。

四禪八定的初禪是什麼呢?

初禪是離生喜樂。

為什麼叫離生喜樂?

答:離生喜樂,就是一個煩惱的眾生,離開自己情意欲在人事物中牽扯所帶來的惱惑。

最後幾句,瞭解了無明,也就沒有一個什麼無明。凡所有相,皆是虛妄。無明在煩惱的相中,相在無明中。

《大般若經》說:「要成就金剛喻地定,才能達成漏盡通。」

漏盡通也者,即徹底破除無明也

 

275

待續

 

------------------- 

道  友

張尚德

各位道友:

現在流行病讓人煩悶,好好熟念《心經》。

總括三句話如下:

1 心無罣礙(昨天那樣,今天如此,明天又如何?生生世世在那裡掛念個什麼?天下本無事,庸人自擾之而已。)

2 得無所得(在真正認識上,是諸法空相。一切成住壞空,又得個什麼?)

3 無有恐怖,遠離顛倒夢想(努力歸到自己本來有的寧靜。真正的寧靜,就是不生不滅,不垢不淨,不增不減。)

 祝福大家,好好背熟《心經》,常常念上面總括三句,生活在裡面,就OK了。

 

二零二一年六月二十二日

於台灣達摩書院

 

---------------------

唯識新引

《成唯識論》新解 

唯識學會創辦人張尚德述

   達摩書院副院長黃高証

273

莫 騙

《成唯識論》卷九

II 十波羅蜜多

一、總舉十行門

十勝行者。即是十種波羅蜜多。

施有三種。謂財施。無畏施。法施。

(述記:財是身任持。無畏是心任持。法施是善法任持。)

戒有三種。謂律儀戒。攝善法戒。饒益有情戒。

忍有三種。謂耐怨害忍。安受苦忍。諦察法忍。

精進有三種。謂被甲精進。攝善精進。利樂精進。

靜慮有三種。謂安住靜慮。引發靜慮。辦事靜慮。

般若有三種。謂生空無分別慧。法空無分別慧。俱空無分別慧。

方便善巧有二種。謂迴向方便善巧。拔濟方便善巧。

願有二種。謂求菩提願。利樂他願。

力有二種。謂思擇力。修習力。

(述記:攝論說。由思擇.修習二力。令前六度無間現行。)

智有二種。謂受用法樂智。成熟有情智。

(述記:攝論云。謂由前六成立妙智。受用法樂。成熟有情。)

二、自性出體門

此十性者。施以無貪及彼所起三業為性。

戒以受學菩薩戒時三業為性。

忍以無瞋精進審慧及彼所起三業為性。

精進以勤及彼所起三業為性。

靜慮但以等持為性。

後五皆以擇法為性。說是根本後得智故。

有義第八以欲勝解及信為性。願以此三為自性故。

(述記:餘義無諍。唯願不以慧為自性。說是後得智者。唯後得智中起故。)

此說自性。若并眷屬。一一皆以一切俱行功德為性。

三、明相門(七最勝)

此十相者。要七最勝之所攝受方可建立波羅蜜多。

一安住最勝。謂要安住菩薩種性。二依止最勝。謂要依止大菩提心。三意樂最勝。謂要悲愍一切有情。四事業最勝。謂要具行一切事勝。五巧便最勝。謂要無相智所攝受。六迴向最勝。謂要迴向無上菩提。七清淨最勝。謂要不為二障間雜。

(述記:無相智所攝受者。即第六不執三輪清淨等。)

若非此七所攝受者。所行施等非到彼岸。

由斯施等十對波羅蜜多一一皆應四句分別。

(述記義演:四句四句者。一有施非度。如人行施不與七最勝相應。二有度非施。謂隨喜他施與七最勝相應。三有只施。只度謂自行施與七最勝相應。四有非施非度。謂二乘等所修五度。)

四、不增減門

此但有十不增減者。謂十地中對治十障證十真如無增減故。

復次前六不增減者。為除六種相違障故。漸次修行諸佛法故。漸次成熟諸有情故。此如餘論廣說應知。

(述記:慳吝、犯戒、瞋恚、懈怠、散亂、惡慧。)

又施等三增上生道。感大財體及眷屬故。精進等三決定勝道。能伏煩惱成熟有情及佛法故。諸菩薩道唯有此二。

又前三種饒益有情。施彼資財。不損惱彼。堪忍彼惱而饒益故。精進等三。對治煩惱。雖未伏滅。而能精勤修對治彼諸善加行永伏永滅諸煩惱故。

又由施等不住涅槃。及由後三不住生死。為無住處涅槃資糧。由此前六不增不減。

後唯四者。為助前六令修滿足不增減故。方便善巧助施等三。願助精進。力助靜慮。智助般若令修滿故。如解深密廣說應知。

五 次第門

十次第者。謂由前前引發後後。及由後後持淨前前。又前前麁。後後細故。易難修習。次第如是。

六 釋名門

釋總別名。如餘處說。

(述記:六釋名者。七十八.解深密等。解總名。云何緣此等名波羅蜜多?由五緣故。……對法十一說。由十二最勝相應故。又波羅。是所知彼岸義。蜜多。是到義。)

七 修門

此十修者。有五種修。一依止任持修。二依止作意修。三依止意樂修。四依止方便修。五依止自在修。依此五修修習十種波羅蜜多皆得圓滿。如集論等廣說其相。

八 攝門

此十攝者。謂十一一皆攝一切波羅蜜多。互相順故。依修前行而引後者。前攝於後。必待前故。後不攝前。不待後故。

依修後行持淨前者。後攝於前。持淨前故前。不攝後。非持淨故。

若依純雜而修習者。展轉相望應作四句。

(述記義演:有施非波羅蜜多,行施不迴向菩提。有波羅蜜多非施,謂於波羅蜜多能勸勵讚美隨喜慶悅等。有亦施亦波羅蜜多,謂諸行施迴向菩提。第四句可知。)

九 開合門

此實有十而說六者。應知後四第六所攝。開為十者。第六唯攝無分別智。後四皆是後得智攝。緣世俗故。

十 五果門

此十果者。有漏有四。除離繫果。無漏有四。除異熟果。

而有處說具五果者。或互相資。或二合說。

(述記:對法十二說。)

十一 三學相攝門

十與三學互相攝者。戒學有三。一律儀戒。謂正遠離所應離法。二攝善法戒。謂正修證應修證法。三饒益有情戒。謂正利樂一切有情。

此與二乘有共不共。甚深廣大。如餘處說。

定學有四。一大乘光明定。謂此能發照了大乘理教行果智光明故。二集福王定。謂此自在集無邊福如王勢力無等雙故。三賢守定。謂此能守世出世間賢善法故。四健行定。謂佛菩薩大健有情之所行故。

此四所緣,對治,堪能,引發,作業,如餘處說。

慧學有三。一加行無分別慧。二根本無分別慧。三後得無分別慧。

此三自性,所依,因緣,所緣,行等,如餘處說。

如是三慧。初二位中種具有三。現唯加行。於通達位現二。種三。見道位中無加行故。於修習位。七地已前若種若現俱通三種。八地以去現二種三。無功用道違加行故。所有進趣皆用後得無漏觀中任運起故。究竟位中現種俱二。加行現種俱已捨故。

若自性攝戒唯攝戒。定攝靜慮。慧攝後五。若并助伴。皆具相攝。

若隨用攝戒攝前三。資糧自體眷屬性故。定攝靜慮。慧攝後五。精進三攝。遍策三故。

若隨顯攝。戒攝前四。前三如前。及守護故。定攝靜慮。慧攝後五。

十二 五位現種相攝門

此十位者。五位皆具。修習位中其相最顯。然初二位頓悟菩薩種通二種。現唯有漏。漸悟菩薩若種若現俱通二種。已得生空無漏觀故。通達位中種通二種。現唯無漏。於修習位。七地已前種現俱通有漏無漏。八地以去種通二種。現唯無漏。究竟位中若現若種俱唯無漏。

十三 分位分別門

此十因位有三種名。一名遠波羅蜜多。謂初無數劫。爾時施等勢力尚微。被煩惱伏未能伏彼。由斯煩惱不覺現行。二名近波羅蜜多。謂第二無數劫。爾時施等勢力漸增非煩惱伏而能伏彼。由斯煩惱故意方行。三名大波羅蜜多。謂第三無數劫。爾時施等勢力轉增能畢竟伏一切煩惱。由斯煩惱永不現行。猶有所知微細現種及煩惱種故未究竟。

此十義類差別無邊。恐厭繁文略示綱要。

十於十地雖實皆修。而隨相增地地修一。

雖十地行有無量門。而皆攝在十到彼岸。

 

英譯(韋達)

II. THE TEN PARAMITAS

I. Definition and Varieties

The ten excellent moral exercises are the ten Paramitas.

1. Dana. - Gifts or charity.

Gifts are of three kinds: (1) material gifts, sustaining the body; (2) gifts of security or freedom from fear, sustaining the mind; and (3) gifts of Dharma, sustaining the good Dharma.

2. Sila. - Morality or observance of commandments.

Commandments are of three kinds: (1) Commandments governing personal conduct; (2) commandments for the acquisition of good Dharma; and (3) commandments for the bestowal of benefits and advantages on sentient beings,

3.Ksanti. - Patient endurance.

Patient endurance is of three kinds: (1) to endure patiently resentment and injury; (2) to accept quietly sorrow and suffering; and (3) to examine patiently and adhere to the Dharma.

4. Virya. - Zeal in making progress.

Zeal in making progress is of three kinds;(1) zeal in producing great resolutions; (2) zeal in acquiring good spiritual dharmas; and (3) zeal in promoting the well-being and happiness of sentient beings.

5. Dhyana. - Meditation and contemplation.

Meditation is of three kinds: (1) meditation leading to Samadhi; (2) meditation leading to the unfoldment of supernatural powers; and (3) meditation leading to the successful accomplishment of great tasks.

6. Prajna. - Discernment

Prajna is of three kinds: (1) Pudgalasunyata-non-discriminating Prajna (intuitive discernment of the voidness of the Atman); (2) Dharmasunyata-non-discriminating-Prajna (intuitive discernment of the voidness of all dharmas); (3) Pudgalasunyata-dharmasunyata-non-discriminating-Prajna (intuitive discernment of the voidness of Atman and all dharmas).

7. Upayakausala. - Skill in resorting to appropriate expedients.

Skill in resorting to appropriate expedients is of two kinds: (1) Skill in turning the mind towards Mahabodhi (Supreme Enlightenment); and (2) skill in delivering sentient beings from suffering.

8. Pranidhana. - Pious vows.

Pious vows are of two kinds: (1) pious vows for attaining Bodhi; and (2) vows for promoting the well-being and happiness of sentient beings.

9.     Bala. - Power of fulfilment.

Power of fulfilment is of two kinds: (1) the power of cogitation; and (2) the power of self-cultivation. These powers are exercised in order that the first six Paramitas may never be interrupted.

10.   Jnana. - Transcendental wisdom,

[According to the Samgraha Sastra, this Jnana is evolved as a result of the practice of the first six Paramitas.] It is of two kinds: (1) wisdom with which the Bodhisattva enjoys the 'felicity of Dharma'; and (2) wisdom with which he enables sentient beings to reach 'spiritual maturity'.

 

2. What do the ten Paramitas consist of?

What is their essential nature?

1. Dana, charity, consists of alobha, non-covetousness, and the three deeds (mind, body, and voice) which proceed from Alobha.

2. Sila, morality, consists of the three deeds learned by the Bodhisattva at his ordination ceremony, during which he receives instructions on the commandments to be observed by him.

3. Ksanti, patient endurance, consists of advesa (non-anger, i.e., pardon for injuries), virya (zeal), investigative Prajna, and the three deeds proceeding from advesa.

4. Virya, zeal in making progress, consists of diligent effort and the three deeds proceeding therefrom.

5. Dhyana, meditation and contemplation, consists only of Samadhi. [It does not include states of dispersed mind.]

6-10. The last five Paramitas consist of criticism or discernment of the dharmas (that is to say,  prajna), for the Samgraha teaches that the sixth Paramita (Prajna) is Mulajnana (Root or Fundamental Wisdom) and the last four are Prsthalabdhajnana (Subsequent Wisdom, i.e., wisdom succeeding upon or arising from Primary Wisdom).

According to certain scholars, the eighth, Pranidhanaparamita (pious vows), consists of desire (Chanda), decision or resolve (Adhimoksa) and belief (Sraddha), for every vow is by its own nature a desire or wish, etc. [No dispute on the subject of the other Paramitas: these scholars say only that Pranidhana is not by its own nature Prajna. If the Samgraha says that Pranidhanaparamita is Subsequent Wisdom, it is because the Bodhisattva produces Pranidhana in the course of the unfolding of this wisdom.]

We have examined what the Paramitas consist of, that is to say, their self-nature (svabhava). If we consider them with their 'relatives or family-members', we shall say that each of them consists also of all the merits or good qualities that accompany it.

 

3. The Seven Excellences

For these virtues to receive the name of Paramitas, they must be comprised and embodied in the seven excellences

1.     Excellence of establishment, which means that the yogin must be well established in the Gotra (seed-nature) of the Bodhisattvas.

2.     Excellence of the Supporting basis' (asraya), which means that the virtues must have their supporting basis in the mind and heart of Mahabodhi.

3.     Excellence of desire and aspiration, which means that the yogin must have compassion and benevolence towards all sentient beings.

4.     Excellence of profession, which means that the virtues must be accompanied by all deeds that conform to their spirit.

5.     Excellence of expedients, which means that the Paramitas must be comprised in the wisdom that is free from nimitta, in such a way that, in performing deeds of charity, the Manovijnana does not 'cling’ to the giver, the receiver, or the gifts received or given.

6.     Excellence of dedication, which mean that the yogin must dedicate himself and turn his Paramita-virtues to Anuttarasamyaksambodhi (Supreme Enlightenment).

7.     Excellence of purity, which means that the virtues must not be tainted by, or mixed with, the two Avaranas.

If the Paramita-virtues are not comprised and embodied in these seven excellences, the charitable deeds, etc., performed by the yogin will not enable him to reach the other shore.

It follows from this that, with regard to the relations between the ten virtues, charity, etc., and Paramita, i.e., 'reaching the other shore’, one can establish four alternatives: (1) charity which is Paramita; (2) charity which is not Paramita; (3) Paramita which is not charity, (4) neither charity nor Paramita, and so forth.

 

4. Number of Paramitas

The Paramitas are ten in number, neither more nor less, because the Bodhisattvas must, in all the ten Bhumis, oppose ten Avaranas, and realize ten Bhutatathatas.

1.     First, the first six Paramitas are six, neither more nor less, because they are intended to expel six obstacles which contradict them (miserliness, immorality, hostility, laziness, distraction, and false views), in order to acquire progressively the Buddhadharmas (the ten powers, etc.), and to develop sentient beings progressively to the fullest extent. These three points are explained in other treatises.

2.     Again, the first three Paramitas, charity, etc., are 'the path of increase and promotion’, because they produce riches, an excellent body, and good companions respectively; the last three, zeal, etc., are ‘the path of decisive victory’, because, respectively, they suppress klesas and cause sentient beings and Buddhadharmas to grow and develop to the fullest extent. The paths of all Bodhisattvas fall into these two categories.

3.     Further, by virtue of the first three Paramitas, the Bodhisattva renders service to sentient beings by giving them money and other good things for their benefit, avoiding injuring or tormenting them, and patiently enduring their outrages, thus doing good to them. The last three, zeal, etc., oppose the klesas; although Viryaparamita neither suppresses nor cuts off the klesas, nevertheless it invigorates all good preparatory exercises (prayaga) which oppose the klesas; Dhyanaparamita suppresses the klesas and Prajnaparamita eliminates them.

4.     Furthermore, by virtue of the first three Paramitas, the Bodhisattva does not establish himself in Nirvana permanently; by virtue of the last three, he does not establish himself in Samsara (rounds of birth and death, i.e., transmigration): the six are therefore the preparation, i.e., the sambhara, for Apratisthitanirvana (attainment of Nirvana without abiding in it).

Therefore the first six Paramitas are six, neither more nor less.

5.     Finally, the last four of the ten Paramitas must be four, because their function is to ensure the perfection of the first six.

Skilful expedients aid the first three Paramitas, charity, etc.; pious vows aid the fourth, zeal; the power of fulfilment aids the fifth, meditation and contemplation; transcendental wisdom aids the sixth, Prajnaparamita.

These points have been explained in detail in the Samdhinirmocana Sutra.

 

5. Order of the Paramitas

The ten Paramitas are set forth in the present order because the preceding one produces the following one; the one following confirms and purifies the one preceding.

Further, the preceding ones are crude compared with the following ones; the practice of the preceding ones is comparatively easier.

 

6. Names of the Paramitas

Why are these virtues called Paramitas? And why are they called Dana-paramita, etc.?

These general and special names have been explained in other treatises. [According to K'uei Chi, five explanations are given in the Yogasastra, 78, and the Samdhinirmocana Sutra, and twelve in the Abhidharma. At the same time, etymologically, 'para' means ‘the other shore’ and ‘mita' means 'reaching’; 'paramita' therefore means 'reaching the other shore'; that is to say, the six paramita-virtues ferry the ascetic across the sea of mortality to Nirvana.]

 

7. Cultivation of the Paramitas

As explained in detail in the Abhidharmasamuccaya and other texts, the cultivation of the ten Paramitas enables the Bodhisattva to attain perfection by reason of a quintuple culture, i.e., five methods of cultivation, namely, (1) cultivation dependent on firm adherance to the Paramitas; (2) cultivation dependent on constant attention to the Paramitas; (3) cultivation dependent on keen aspiration after the Paramitas; (4) cultivation dependent on skilful expedients ; and (5) cultivation dependent on self-realization with a mind free from obstacles and perverted views.

 

8. Reciprocal Inclusion

One may say that each of the ten Paramitas comprises the nine others, because they are interrelated.

The practice of the Paramita that precedes leads to the Paramita that follows. From this point of view, the preceding one comprises the following one, which depends on it; the one following does not comprise the one preceding, which does not depend on it.

But the practice of the subsequent Paramita confirms and purifies the preceding one. From this point of view, the succeeding one comprises the one preceding, but not vice versa.

In considering mixed or non-mixed practices of the Paramitas, there are four alternatives; [e.g., (1) Charity which is not Paramita, as in the case of a person who gives in charity for selfish purposes and not for the realization of Bodhi; (2) Paramita which is not Charity, as in the case of a person who has no money to give in charity, but who encourages others to do so and rejoices with them; (3) acts that are both Charity and Paramita, as in the case of a person who gives in charity and dedicates the merits to Anuttarasamyaksambodhi; and (4) deeds that appear to be charitable and are, in reality, neither Charity nor Paramita … K'uei Chi.]

 

9. Ten and Six

In fact, there are ten Paramitas. If a list of six is drawn up, it is because the last four are comprised in the sixth, Prajnaparamita. The reason why the Paramitas are divided into ten in number is that the sixth, Prajnaparamita, proceeds from Nirvikalpakaj nana (Fundamental, Non-discriminating Wisdom), while the fast four proceed from Prsthalabdhajnana (Subsequent Wisdom, i.e., wisdom that follows or arises out of Fundamental Wisdom), for they are related to ordinary or worldly wisdom (Samvrti).

 

10. Fruits of the Ten Paramitas

Among the fruits of the ten Paramitas, there are four that are impure, excluding the Visamyogaphala, which is always pure  and four that are pure, excluding the Vipakaphala.

One text, Abhidharma, 12, says that the Paramitas have five fruits. This is because it either considers the mutual assistance which the fruits lend to one another, or considers, together, the pure and impure fruits which the Paramitas can bear.

 

11. The Paramitas and the Three Branches of Learning (Siksas)

The ten Paramitas and the three branches of learning (Siksa), Sila, Samadhi and Prajna, are mutually inclusive.

1.     Learning in respect of Sila (i.e., Adhisilam Siksa or moral commandments to be observed by a Bodhisattva) is of three kinds:

(1) Commandments in the form of rules and regulations, the observance of which signifies total abstention from dharmas wherefrom one should totally abstain;

(2)   Commandments relating to the acquisition of good dharmas, which signifies cultivation and realization of dharmas which should be cultivated and realized; and

(3)   Commandments relating to the bastowal of benefits on sentient beings, which signifies the procurement of happiness and well-being for all sentient beings.

Between these three branches of learning and the two Vehicles there are certain identities and certain differences.

As regards the profundity and comprehensiveness of the moral commandments to be observed by Bodhisattvas, this has been explained in other treatises.

 

2.     Learning in respect of Samadhi (Adhicittam Siksa) is of four kinds:

(1)   Mahayana-illuminating Samadhi, so called because this meditation can produce the light of wisdom which illuminates the principles, teachings, practices, and fruits of the Greater Vehicle.

(2)   Merit-accumulating Royal Samadhi, so called because this meditation can spontaneously accumulate merits which are as boundless as the power of a king is unequalled.

(3)   Virtue-maintaining Samadhi, so called because this meditation can guard and maintain good mundane and supramundane dharmas.

(4)   All-powerful Samadhi, so called because this Samadhi is practised by great heroes, that is, Buddhas and Boddhisattvas.

These four Samadhis are characterized and distinguished by their objects, their antitheses, their capacities, their fruits, and their activities.

3. The learning in respect of Prajna (Adhiprajnam Siksa) is of three kinds

 (1) Prayogika-nirvikalpika Prajna, i.e., non-discriminating transcendental wisdom which stresses the importance of intensified effort for moral advancement.

(2} Mula-nirvikalpika Prajna, i.e., the fundamental non-discriminating wisdom.

(3) Prsthalabdha-nirvikalpika Prajna, i.e., the non-discriminating wisdom that follows or arises out of the fundamental wisdom.

a.     The explanation of these three wisdoms (jnanas) in respect of their nature (svabhava), their supporting basis (asraya), their cause (hetupratyaya), their object (alambana), their mode of activity (akara), etc., may be found in other treatises (e.g., in the Samgraha Sastra).

b.     The five stages of the Path and the three Prajnas

In the first two stages (Sambhara and Prayoga), the three Prajnas exist in the state of Bija while the first of them, i.e., the Prayogika-nirvikalpika Prajna, is in actual manifestation.

In the Prativedha stage (the third stage, that of unimpeded penetrating understanding), the second and third Prajnas (i.e., the Mula-nirvikalpika Prajna and the Prsthalabdha-nirvikalpika prajna) are in actual manifestation while all the three Prajnas are in the state of Bija. The reason why the first Prajna (Prayoga) is not in manifestation is that it is not present during the Darsanamarga period (the third stage).

In the Bhavana stage (i.e., the fourth) it is necessary to distinguish: up to and including the seventh Bhumi, the three Prajnas are both in the state of Bija and in actual manifestation; from the eighth Bhumi, the three Prajnas are in the. state of Bija, while the last two are in manifestation. The reason why the first is not active is that the Anabhogamarga (the stage in which pure intuition proceeds spontaneously and effortlessly) is incompatible with the first Prajna (which concerns 'intensified effort'). On the other hand, the reason why the third Prajna is active is that all progressive activities in the eighth Bhumi, and in the higher Bhumis, whatever they may be, proceed from the Subsequent Wisdom (Prsthalabdhajnana) which, in the course of pure contemplation, arises spontaneously.

Among the Buddhas in the final or Nistha stage (that of ultimate realization), the last two Prajnas are both in the state of Bija and in actual manifestation. The reason why the first is absent is that, in this final stage, everything that is from Prayoga (the first Prajna) has, in fact, been abandoned.

On examining the Paramitas and the Siksas from the point of view of their self-nature (svabhava), it will be found that Adhisilam Siksa (commandments) comprises Silaparamita; Adhicittam Siksa comprises the Dhyanaparamita; and Adhiprajnam Siksa comprises the last five Paramitas. But, taking into account the ‘escorts’, that is to say, the dharmas which accompany both the Paramitas and the Siksas, there is reciprocal inclusion of the ten and the three.

On examining the functions of the Paramitas and the Siksas, it will be perceived that (a) Adhisila comprises: (i) the Danaparamita, because Dana is the 'preparatory provision' for Sila; (ii) the Silaparamita, which is Sila by nature; (iii) the Ksantiparamita, because Ksanti is the escort of Sila [In order not to violate the commandments, one must be patient]; (b) Adhicitta comprises the Dhyanaparamita; (c) Adhiprajna comprises the last five Paramitas; and (d) Viryaparamita comprises all the three Siksas, because it helps all of them.

From another point of view, Adhisila comprises the first four Paramitas, the three enumerated above, and the Viryaparamita which protects it; Adhicitta comprises the Dhyanaparamita and Adhiprajna coniprises the last five Paramitas.

 

12. The Paramitas and the Five Stages

The ten Paramitas exist in all the five stages; but it is in the stage of Bhavana that their characteristics are most clearly manifested.

In the course of the first two stages, for Bodhisattvas of instantaneous realization, the Bijas of the Paramitas are pure and impure, but the Paramitas in actual manifestation are exclusively impure. As for Bodhisattvas who progress by gradual realization, both the Bijas of the Paramitas and the Paramitas in actual manifestation are pure and impure, because these Bodhisattvas have already obtained the pure contemplation of Pudgalasunyata.

In the stage of Prativedha (that of unimpeded penetrating understanding), the Bijas are pure and impure, while the actual Paramitas are pure.

In the stage of Bhavana, up to and including the seventh Bhumi, the Paramitas, whether in the state of Bija or in actual manifestation, are pure and impure. From the eighth Bhumi, the Bijas are pure and impure, while the actual Paramitas are exclusively pure.

Among the Buddhas in the final stage of Nistha, the Bijas and actual Paramitas are all exclusively pure.

 

13. Different Designations for the Paramitas

The ten Paramita-virtues, among non-Buddhas, take successively three names.

1. 'Remote Paramita’, in the course of the first Asamkhyeya (innumerable kalpas, i.e., countless aeons). - During this epoch, the force of charity (Dana) and of the other virtues is so weak that, far from suppressing the klesas, the virtues are suppressed by the klesas. Klesas enter into manifestation spon¬taneously without prior reflection.

2.     'Proximate Paramita', in the course of the second Asamkhyeya. – During this epoch, the force of charity and of the other virtues increases gradually: the virtues are not suppressed by the klesas. On the contrary, they suppress the klesas. The klesas no longer enter into manifestation unless voluntarily.

3.     'Mahaparamita', in the course of the third Asamkhyeya. - During this epoch, the force of charity and of the other virtues has become very strong: the virtues are capable of absolutely suppressing all klesas, which, from then onwards, can never again enter into activity. However, there still remains the subtle Jneyavarana, either in actual manifestation or in the state of Bija; there remain aiso the Bijas of Klesavarana. The Paramitas are therefore not yet perfect.

Distinctions to be established among the Paramitas are without number. In order not to be too elaborate and tedious, we shall limit ourselves to this summary.

In fact, the ten Paramitas are practised in all the ten Bhumis; nevertheless, one may attribute to each of the Bhumis the Paramita which is dominant in it.

Innumerable are the moral practices of the ten Bhumis; however they are all comprised in the ten Paramitas.

 

中譯(黃高証)

II 十波羅蜜

1、定義和種類

十勝行,即十種波羅蜜:

1 布施或慈善

布施有三:(1)財物布施,以滋養色身;(2) 無畏布施,使免除恐懼,以資益其心;(3)正法布施,以維繫善法。

2持戒

戒律有三種:(1)規範個人行為的戒律;(2)攝持善法的戒律;(3)饒益有情眾生的戒律。

3.忍辱

忍辱有三種:(1)忍受他人的怨恨和傷害;(2)平靜地安受悲傷和痛苦;(3)耐心審察諦觀於法。

4精進

精進有三種:(1)大誓願精進;(2)攝善法精進;(3) 造福眾生精進。

5靜慮

靜慮有三種:(1)進入三昧的靜慮;(2)引發神通力的定;(3)辦事定。

6 般若有三:(1)生空無分別慧(直觀我空);(2)法空無分別慧(直觀法空);(3)俱空無分別慧(直觀我法二空)。

7 善巧方便

方便有兩種:(1)迴心趨向大菩提(最高覺悟)的善巧方便;(2)使眾生免除痛苦的善巧方便。

8虔誠的誓願

願有二:(1)為求菩提而虔誠發願;(2)為利樂有情而發願。

9. 力量。

力量有兩種:(1)深思的力量;(2)修持的力量。這些力量能使前六波羅蜜相續無間。

10. 超然智慧

[根據《攝大乘論》的說法,此智由實踐前六波羅蜜而成就。] 智有兩種:(1)菩薩受用法樂的智慧;(2)成熟有情的智慧。

2十波羅蜜有哪些特性?

它們的本質是什麼?

1 布施,包含無貪及相應於無貪的身、語、意三業。

2 持戒,包括在戒壇受菩薩戒及持菩薩戒時的三業。

3  忍辱,由無瞋(不發火,原諒以往所受傷害)、精進、審慧,及相應於無瞋的三業所組成。

4 精進,以勤奮及其三業為性。

5 靜慮,只以定心為性 [不包括散亂心。]

6-10. 最後五波羅蜜,包括對佛法的決擇或辨別(即般若),因為《攝大乘論》說第六波羅蜜(般若)是根本智(基本智慧),後四者是後得智(即後起或源生於根本智的智慧)。

根據某些論師的說法,第八(願)波羅蜜包含欲、勝解、信,因為「願」是以欲等三法為自性  [這些論師對於其他波羅蜜沒有異議,唯獨主張:願不是以慧為自性。至於《攝大乘論》說願波羅蜜是後得智,那是因為菩薩在開發智慧的過程中,虔心發願。]

我們已經研究了波羅蜜的自性,也就是它們自身的本性。如果要將其相關輔行一併考慮,那麼十波羅蜜中的每一個,都具足所有的功德或美德。

3 明相門(七最勝)

這些行門必須有七種最勝,才可稱為波羅蜜。七最勝是:

1. 安住最勝:行者須安住於菩薩種性(種子性質),立最勝因。

2. 依止最勝:這意味著行門必須依止於大菩提心。

3. 意樂最勝:是指行者必須慈悲一切有情眾生。

4. 事業最勝:是指必須從事一切隨順度生的事業。

5. 巧便最勝:意味著波羅蜜必須是無相智所攝。這也就是在行善時,意識不執著於施者、受者或施物。

6. 迴向最勝:這意味著行者必須全然奉獻,將其功德,迴向無上菩提(究竟覺悟)。

7. 清淨最勝:這是指行門不可被二障染污或混雜。

如果波羅蜜不含這七種最勝,則施等行就無法到彼岸。

由此可知,從施等十行門與波羅蜜(到彼岸)的關係,可以建立四種範疇:(1)亦施亦度,(2)施而非度,(3)度而非施,(4)非施非度。

4 波羅蜜的數量

菩薩在十地中,要對治十障,證十真如,所以波羅蜜不多也不少,恰好有十。

1.首先,前六波羅蜜之所以為六,不多不少,因為它們可以除滅六種相違障(慳吝、犯戒、瞋恚、懈怠、散亂、惡慧),如是漸修一切佛法(十力等),並逐漸成熟一切有情。這些在其它論典中都有說明。

2. 施等前三波羅蜜屬於“增上生道”,因為它們能各別招感鉅富、身體康健、妙眷屬;精進等後三者屬於“決定勝道”,因為它們能各別伏除煩惱,使眾生和佛法得到最大程度的成熟和開展。所有菩薩道都在這兩類範疇中。

3. 再者,菩薩依前三波羅蜜饒益有情:布施財物,避免傷害或折磨眾生,耐心忍受他人的暴怒,從而利益眾生。最後的精進等三波羅蜜可對治煩惱。精進波羅蜜雖未能伏滅煩惱,但它勤修所有善品加行以對治之。靜慮能永伏煩惱,而般若能永滅煩惱。

4. 此外,由於前三波羅蜜,菩薩不會久住涅槃;由後三波羅蜜,菩薩不住生死(輪迴流轉):因此,這六波羅蜜是無住處涅槃(在涅槃中不執著涅槃)的前行(即資糧)。

此所以六波羅蜜不多不少,恰好有六。。

5. 十波羅蜜中的最後四個必唯有四,因為它們的作用是確保前六波羅蜜趨於圓滿。

方便善巧,能輔助施等前三波羅蜜;願者,可助第四精進波羅蜜;力者,有助於第五靜慮波羅蜜;智者,能助第六般若波羅蜜,趨於圓滿。

這些論點在《解深密經》中有詳細的解釋。

5波羅蜜的次第

十波羅蜜的次第,是由前者引生後者,由後者淨化前者。

此外,前行粗而後行細;前前易修,後後難習。

6波羅蜜的名稱

為什麼這些行門總名為「波羅蜜」(Paramitas),別名為「布施波羅蜜」等?

這些總名和別名,在其他的論典中已經解釋過。 [據窺基大師所言,在《瑜伽論》卷78和《解深密經》中有五種解釋,而在阿毗達摩則有十二種解釋。同時,從其詞源來看,“para”指“彼岸”,“mita指“到達”因此,Paramitas即‘到達彼岸’;也就是說,六波羅蜜將讓行者渡過死亡之海,到達涅槃。]

7波羅蜜的修持

如《阿毘達磨集論》等典籍所言,菩薩依此五種修法,使十波羅蜜皆得圓滿。即:(1)依止任持修,(2) 依止作意修,(3)依止意樂修,(4)依止方便修,(5)依止自在修,心無罣礙,離諸邪見。

8互相涵攝

有說,十波羅蜜中的每一個都包含了其他九波羅蜜,因為它們是相互關聯的。

修習前面的波羅蜜,能夠引發後面的波羅蜜。若依此觀點,則前者包括後者,因為後行必須依藉前行;然而前行不待後行而立,故後者不必然包括前者。

但從另一方面來看,修習後行可以持淨前行,若依據此觀點,後者包含前者,反之則不然。

有關波羅蜜的純雜修習,有四種情況 [,(1)非波羅蜜的布施,如出於自利而行布施,不是為了證得菩提;(2) 非布施的波羅蜜,比如自己沒錢布施,但鼓勵別人這樣做,並且隨喜;(3)亦布施亦波羅蜜的行為,例如在施捨中將功德迴向阿耨多羅三藐三菩提;(4)偽善行,實際上既不是布施也不是波羅蜜……窺基大師註。]

9十和六

實際上,波羅蜜共十個,有時僅言前六,那是因為把最後四個包含在第六般若波羅蜜。波羅蜜被分成十個的原因是,第六般若波羅蜜唯攝無分別智(根本智,沒有分別),而後四者能緣世間法或俗諦,屬於後得智攝(後得智即後起或源自於根本智的智慧)。

10十波羅蜜之果

這十波羅蜜的果,有漏者有四(等流、異熟、士用、增上),離繫果除外;無漏者亦有四(等流、離繫、士用、增上),異熟果除外。

《對法論》卷12說,波羅蜜有五果。這是考慮到果的相互資助,或者是總括無漏和有漏的波羅蜜果。

11波羅蜜和三學

十波羅蜜和戒定慧三學,彼此互攝。

1. 戒學(即菩薩在行持上要遵守的戒律)有三:

1)律儀戒,此戒是對於應捨之法,完全戒除;

2)攝善法戒,對於應該修證之法,努力實修實證;

3)饒益有情戒,意指讓所有眾生獲得利樂安穩。

這三者和二乘戒之間,有同有異。

菩薩戒甚深廣大,其他論典已有詳述。

2.定學有四:

1)大乘光明定:以此為定,是因為這種冥想可以產生智慧之光,明照大乘法的見地、教義、實踐和證果。

2)集福王定:此之為定,是因為這種禪定可以任運地積累無邊福德,就像王者的勢力是無與倫比的。

3)賢守定:以此為定,是因為這種禪定可以守護和維護世出世間的善法。

4)健行定,此之為定,是因為這種禪定是佛菩薩等大雄行持之定。

這四種定的特點和區別,在於它們的所緣、對治、功能、果位、活動。

3. 慧學有三:

1)加行無分別慧:強調進德修業的重要,積極努力。

2)根本無分別慧。

3)後得無分別慧:即後起或源生於根本智的無差別慧。

a、關於這三種慧的自性、所依、因緣、所緣、活動等方面,可以在其他論典(如《攝大乘論》)中找到解釋。

b、 五位與三慧

在前兩位(資糧和加行),三慧的種子皆備,但唯有第一加行無分別慧起現行。

在第三通達位(通達無礙的階段),三慧的種子皆有,現行則唯在第二根本和第三後得無分別慧。缺第一加行無分別慧,因為通達位(第三階段)沒有加行。

在第四階段的修習位中,七地以前仍有分別,三慧種子與現行都有;從第八地以上,三慧種子仍在。唯最後二慧起現行。第一加行慧不起現行的原因是,無功用道(無漏、率爾、任運、無功用的階段)與第一加行慧(積極用功)不相容。另一方面,第三後得慧之所以現起,是因為第八地以上的所作所為,無論什麼舉動,都是後得慧在無漏觀中任運起用。

到了最後的究竟位(究竟實證階段),諸佛唯有根本、後得二慧的種子、現行。沒有第一慧的現行種子。原因是,在這最後階段,已捨去一切加行慧的現行、種子。

從波羅蜜和三學的自性來看,會發現戒學只攝戒波羅蜜;定學唯攝靜慮波羅蜜;慧學唯涵攝最後的五波羅蜜。但是,若把彼此的輔助關係也考慮進來,則三學通於十波羅蜜,是互相涵攝的。

從波羅蜜和三學的作用來看,會發現(a)戒學包括:(i)施波羅蜜,因為布施是三學的“資糧”,(ii)戒波羅蜜,其本質與戒學相同,(iii)忍辱波羅蜜,因為忍辱是三學的助伴 [為了不犯戒,必須耐煩],(b)定學包括靜慮波羅蜜,(c)慧學攝最後五波羅蜜,(d)精進波羅蜜包含所有三學,因為它對三學有策勵的作用。

從波羅蜜和三學的顯相來看,戒學攝前四波羅蜜:施、戒、忍、精進(護戒)波羅蜜;定學唯攝靜慮波羅蜜,慧學攝最後五波羅蜜。

12波羅蜜與五位

這五位都有十波羅蜜;但在修習位,其特性最為明顯。

在資糧、加行二位中,對頓悟菩薩來說,波羅蜜的種子通有漏、無漏,而其現行唯通有漏。對於漸悟菩薩,波羅蜜的種子和現行俱通有漏、無漏。因為這些菩薩已經成就生空無漏觀。

在通達位(通達無礙的見道階段),種子通有漏、無漏,而現行唯通無漏。

在修習位,七地之前,波羅蜜的種、現俱通有漏、無漏。從第八地開始,種子通有漏、無漏,現行唯是無漏。

在最後的究竟位,諸佛的種子、現行唯是無漏。

13 波羅蜜的不同稱呼

在成佛前的因位,十波羅蜜有三種稱呼:

1.名遠波羅蜜:在第一阿僧祇劫(無數劫,無數億年)的歷程中,布施和其他行門的力量如此薄弱,非但無法調伏煩惱,反而被煩惱壓制。因此,煩惱不知不覺地現起。

2. 名近波羅蜜:在第二阿僧祇劫中,布施和其他行門的力量逐漸增強:這些行門並沒有被煩惱壓制。相反地,它們調伏了煩惱。除非是故意為之,否則煩惱不再現起。

3. 名大波羅蜜,在第三阿僧祇劫時,布施與其他行門的力量非常強大:這些行門能夠徹底調伏所有煩惱,因此煩惱永不現行。然而此時仍有所知障的微細現行或種子,及煩惱障的微細種子,所以還沒究竟圓滿。

十波羅蜜的義類差別無窮無盡,為了不過於繁雜,僅略示其綱目。

事實上,十地皆須通修十波羅蜜;然而每一地有其主修之波羅蜜。

雖然菩薩十地的行門無量,但都包含在十波羅蜜中。

 

尚德按:

此次《成唯識論》談要修十波羅蜜,也就是把學佛、成佛的修證細節說出來了。每一點都可以寫一本小書。

大禪師八指頭陀說:

「六根不悟是六賊,六根悟了六波羅。」

眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意的根根是六根,離不開地水火風四大和色受想行識五蘊。凡夫眾生,一旦被本空的四大和為幻的五蘊綑綁,便死死的陷在煩惱中,不得解脫。所以要學佛、參禪的道理在此。

道理比較容易了解,因此《圓覺經》說:

「知幻即離,不作方便;離幻即覺,亦無漸次。」

悟道的《楞嚴經》講:理是可以頓悟的,但事上要歷劫修行。

多說實在沒有用,近來我常常反省自己,真在佛法上修行,要從甚麼地方開始?

《佛性論》說:「學佛首先要吃苦,要信佛,還要聰明。」

所以真學佛,一開始還是非修頭陀行不可。這就難怪釋迦牟尼佛在雪山苦行六年。

成佛的《法華》強調龍女的「施」,十波羅蜜一開始也是講「布施」,《金剛經》更強調,要在三輪托空中,無相布施。

《法華經》中,普賢菩薩作了總結:

一者、為諸佛護念,

二者、植眾德本,

三者、入正定聚,

四者、發救一切眾生之心。

這四點綜合的包括了十波羅蜜。

總括地說,如果真要學佛,那就必須信佛、依佛、歸佛、行佛,最後成佛,也不認為自己是佛。

慢慢來吧!

初發心即成正等正覺。

達摩來中國,要找一個不騙的人。

人都是騙自己,騙別人,被別人騙。天天在學佛,莫時時在騙自己。

千萬莫騙也

 

274

待續   

 

-------------------

永遠懷念

張尚德

各位道友:

  物華天寶,人傑地靈,湘潭自唐朝以來,歷代出了四十位以上的大禪師。

  大家每年五一聚在道南書院「共品禪味」,真是有說不完的話。

  當六根落在六塵時,不起執著,全力歸到自己本來有的平靜。

  無盡的懷念大家!希望我們很快能再相聚一堂。

  祝福!千萬祝福!

 

 

尚德 於台灣達摩書院

二零二一年五月二日

 

------------------

 

又是花开时候

圓亮

“帘外雨潺潺,春意阑珊。”正是乡村三月的写照。

道南书院茶花灿烂,红粉亮丽;杨柳抽枝,嫩芽垂地;杜鹃花含苞欲放,广玉兰相继吐蕊,朵朵花瓣风姿绰约,鲜活可爱,似一只只展翅欲飞的小鸟……(果然不过七天,就全飞走了。)

田边簇拥着紫色的地丁花,梨花妆成一树树的雪,桃树鼓红了每一个花苞。菜花成片盛开,处处金黄翠绿,这是早春最热烈的问候。

虽然疫情还在,这里几乎没有什么影响。村民们随着时节,翻地耕作,收获夏秋二季稻子,菜园四季绿色不断;虽然五天一个赶集,网上超市的车却天天到来,在一个个小店放下众多货物;傍晚时分,三三两两的人群散步依旧。节假日,车流不断,最多的一家,院子里停了五辆。

 

由於疫情影響,老师已经一年多没能来了。

但案上有老师的书,网上有老师的音容,院子的每一个角落都留有老师的足迹。偶尔的电话,慈爱关怀,谆谆教诲,暖人心窝,感人肺腑。老师时刻与我们在一起!

师父领进门,修行在个人。这是老师的告诫。

过去的一年,是重新审视生命与疾病的一年,病毒无国界,我们的国家经历了前所未有的防疫考验。自上而下,无论是领导层还是普通百姓,都交出了令人自豪的答卷。我深深地感动于国家对生命的尊重,感动于每个人的自律、互助与牺牲,其中所透出的满满善意,再次印证了中华民族的最根本的人文文化:善。

老师一再强调:中华精华文化是善的文化。

无论是易经所讲:一阴一阳之谓道,继之者善也,成之者性也。还是儒家推崇的仁义礼智信,佛家的慈悲喜舍,道家的慈俭谦,无一不以善为起始,至善为终点。

真理是经得起时间的考验的,五千多年的文化传承至今,仍带来无尽的温暖与力量。我为生于这样的国家,处于这样的时代而感恩。

 

道南书院位于湖南湘潭乡下,与青山绿水相邻,田野村落为伴。能欣赏太阳升起时的云蒸霞蔚,落日时分的漫天霞光;看得见月亮的阴晴圆缺,色彩各异,从银白,粉红,淡黄,至金黄,桔红,大红。大开眼界。

因少有路灯,月圆之夜,若明灯在天,泻下满地清光,寂静空灵。墙面如霜似雪,琉璃瓦上点点金光,绿叶之间银光闪烁,恍若天宫。

在这里,我充分领略了古典建筑之美。天地建筑园林水池,极其和谐地呼应融和,完全体现了中国文化天地人合一的内在精神。在我们的传统文化,人与自然永远是统一而不矛盾的,个体的生命也因此延伸,与天地同在。这是何等的气派,何等的美!

蓝天旷野之间,远远地,就能看到书院高耸而立。朱柱雕窗,白墙金瓦,庄重凛然,气势恢宏。

一进来,首先感觉沉静大气,让人身心收敛。细细观看,则精妙雅致,移步换景,极富韵味。无论从哪个角度,均是赏心悦目。以至于打扫的时候,会时时停下欣赏。累了的时候,随便一站,掠过高高的屋脊注目白云,倚着朱红的楼柱远眺大地,手抚曲折回旋的雕栏,看着精心设计的树木鱼池,是很舒服的休息。每每至此,由衷地感恩老师和所有为此出力的道友。

 

书院的生活简单平静。主要劳动是清洁维护。除了散步时与村民打个招呼,取一些快递,没有和外界太多的交集。衣服是穿不破的,吃的也有限,太饱不适。其实人需要的并不多。

最倒霉的事,不过是冬天被躲在厚袜子里的黄蜂蜇了一下,第二天就消肿了。(可怜的黄蜂,不知道还能不能活。)

最开心一次,是手机坏了。(掉进拖把桶没发现,主板报废。)

惭愧自己做事不专心,心疼才用了不到半年。然后,什么微信,浏览,购物,电话,统统再见吧!

那天的打扫,特别老实。

打扫完毕,提着拖把放回原处,我意外而惊喜地发现:内心一片安宁,绵绵不尽。整个人都静下来,安祥自在。

久违了!一直以来的追求,最愉悦的享受!我的感激无以言表:有了它,千山万水都去得,任何人事物都能包容。

“不将真性染尘埃,为有烟霞伴此生”。这才是真正的“烟霞”!

 

有时候,我们与内心安定的距离,只是一个手机。哪怕只丢掉一天,把欲望的触足稍稍收一下,生命本来有的清净安宁会微微地透出来。这才相信:不必向外去求,本来就在自己身上啊!

 

不由神往:当老师在四十八岁,不要了,连命都不要了的时候,达到的境界,该是何等的高邈。历代的禅师大德,或驻山川怡然自得,或在地方从容教化,能忍受常人所不能想像的苦难,心中该有着多少美不胜收的“烟霞”!

老师说:人本来是很高贵的,因为可以什么都不需要,自己归到自己。

 

来到道南,以为自己放下很多,原来不过是自欺欺人。曾为了少一点念头,拼命念佛,或把自己打扫得很累,思想总是如影随行,丝毫不停。为什么?老师的话:人生的活路太多。

所以老师再三强调做事就是修行,要吃苦,要忘我,为一切苦难众生服务。

虽未能,心向往之。

 

春雷已经震响,马上就是惊蛰。夜晚的蛙声开始热闹,鸟鸣声也婉转起来。新垒的鸟巢,躺着淡青色的鸟蛋。等到春分,红苋菜可以下种了,田间的耕作会全面展开。家家户户的柚子树,就要绽放洁白厚实的花朵,整个村庄又将沉浸在氤氲的香气中,那时每一口呼吸都是香的。

老师说:这里就是极乐世界啊!

但这个世界并不太平,贪婪无知与偏见带来的傲慢,不断地在制造不幸。很多人为欲望所驱使,忙碌而茫然。

 

有幸处在和平而安全的国度,接触到人文文化的最高峰:禅。唯有无尽的感恩:

愿世界和平,国家昌盛,人民安康。

愿中华精华人文文化的光芒,照亮世界前进的方向。

愿老师悲悯世间,长久住世。

 

尚德讀後:

讓自己本來有的真善美,契應宇宙和回歸宇宙,又超越之。入佛,常樂我淨。

二零二一年三月六日

於台灣達摩書院

 

------------------

 

什麼是達摩禪?

張尚德

只要看《指月錄》談達摩的那一章,就知道什麼是達摩禪。其主要理論基礎,在《楞伽經》。

入禪的初步,絕對是要證到人無我和法無我的空性,

也就是證到世親菩薩所說的:

「因假說我法,有種種相轉。」

亦即證到四大本空,五蘊為幻。

實際的方法是:

外息諸緣,

內心無喘,

心如牆壁,

可以入道。

達摩大師之所以為禪門西天二十八祖,東土初祖,祂豈止是在少林寺面壁九年,而是歷劫修行,好多好多世信佛、禮佛、供養億萬佛,才成其為達摩禪的。

佛法的總結是《華嚴經》。善財童子五十三參所遇到的善知識,無一不是圓滿成就六波羅蜜(布施、持戒、忍辱、精進、禪定、智慧)而歷劫修行者。

尚德學達摩禪,南老師賜匾,在台灣成立達摩書院,雖任重道遠,卻事事蹉跎,慚愧無已。

 

二零二零年十一月三日

於台灣達摩書院

 

附:《指月錄》達摩祖師章

    初祖菩提達摩大師者。南天竺國香至王第三子也。姓剎帝利。本名菩提多羅。後於般若多羅尊者得法。尊者謂曰。汝於諸法已得通量。達摩者通大之義也。宜名達摩。因改今名。祖恭稟教義。服勤四十年。迨尊者順世。遂演化本國。時有二師。一名佛大先。二名佛大勝多。本與祖同學。佛陀䟦陀小乘禪觀。佛大先既遇般若[1]波羅尊者。捨小趣大。與祖竝化。時號為二甘露門矣。而佛大勝多。更分徒而為六宗。第一有相宗。第二無相宗。第三定慧宗。第四戒行宗。第五無得宗。第六寂靜宗。各封己解。別展化源。祖喟然歎曰。彼之一師已陷牛跡。況復支離而分六宗。我若不除。永纏邪見。言已微現神力。至有相宗所問曰。一切諸法何名實相。彼眾中有一尊長薩婆羅。答曰。於諸相中不互諸相。是名實相。祖曰。一切諸相而不互者。若名實相。當何定耶。彼曰。於諸相中實無有定。若定諸相。何名為實。祖曰。諸相不定。便名實相。汝今不定。當何得之。彼曰。我言不定。不說諸相。當說諸相。其義亦然。祖曰。汝言不定。當為實相。定不定故。即非實相。彼曰。定既不定。即非實相。知我非故。不定不變。祖曰。汝今不變。何名實相。已變已往。其義亦然。彼曰。不變當在。在不在故。故變實相。以定其義。祖曰。實相不變。變即非實。於有無中。何名實相。薩婆羅心知聖師懸解潛達。即以手指虗空曰。此是世間有相。亦能空故。當我此身得似此否。祖曰。若解實相。即見非相。若了非相。其色亦然。當於色中不失色體。於非相中不礙有故。若能是解。此名實相。彼眾聞已。心意朗然。欽禮信受。祖瞥然匿跡。至無相宗所而問曰。汝言無相。當何證之。彼眾中有波羅提者。答曰。我明無相。心不現故。祖曰。汝心不現。當何明之。彼曰。我明無相。心不取捨。當於明時。亦無當者。祖曰。於諸有無。心不取捨。又無當者。諸明無故。彼曰。入佛三昧。尚無所得。何況無相而欲知之。祖曰。相既不知。誰云有無。尚無所得。何名三昧。彼曰。我說不證。證無所證。非三昧故。我說三昧。祖曰。非三昧者。何當名之。汝既不證。非證何證。波羅提聞祖辨析。即悟本心。禮謝於祖。懺悔往謬。祖記曰。汝當得果。不久證之。此國有魔。非久降之。言已忽然不現。至定慧宗所問曰。汝學定慧。為一為二。彼眾中有婆蘭陀者。答曰。我此定慧。非一非二。祖曰。既非一二。何名定慧。彼曰。在定非定。處慧非慧。一即非一。二亦不二。祖曰。當一不一。當二不二。既非定慧。約何定慧。彼曰。不一不二。定慧能知。非定非慧。亦復然矣。祖曰。慧非定故。然何知哉。不一不二。誰定誰慧。婆蘭陀聞之。疑心氷釋。至第四戒行宗所問曰。何者名戒。云何名行。當此戒行為一為二。彼眾中有一賢者。答曰。一二二一。皆彼所生。依教無染。此名戒行。祖曰。汝言依教。即是有染。一二俱破何言依教。此二違背。不及於行。內外非明。何名為戒。彼曰。我有內外。彼已知竟。既得通達。便是戒行。若說違背。俱是俱非。言及清淨。即戒即行。祖曰。俱是俱非。何言清淨。既得通故。何談內外。賢者聞之即自慚服。至無得宗所問曰。汝云無得。無得何得。既無所得。亦無得得。彼眾中有寶靜者。答曰。我說無得。非無得得。當說得得。無得是得。祖曰。得既不得。得亦非得。既云得得。得得何得。彼曰見得非得。非得是得。若見不得。名為得得。祖曰。得既非得。得得無得。既無所得。當何得得。寶靜聞之頓除疑網。至寂靜宗所問曰。何名寂靜。於此法中誰靜誰寂。彼眾中有尊者答曰。此心不動。是名為寂。於法無染。名之為靜。祖曰。本心不寂。要假寂靜。本來寂故。何用寂靜。彼曰。諸法本空。以空空故。於彼空空。故名寂靜。祖曰。空空已空。諸法亦爾。寂靜無相。何靜何寂。彼尊者聞師指誨。豁然開悟。於是六眾咸誓歸依。化被南天。聲馳五印。經六十載。度無量眾。後值異見王欲毀佛法。王故祖之姪也。祖憫之欲開其蒙。而六眾亦各念。佛法有難。師將何所匡濟。祖遙知眾意。彈指應之。六眾悉聞云。此我師信響也。皆至祖所。祖曰。一翳蔽空。孰為翦之。前無相宗宗勝欲行。祖曰。汝雖辯慧。道力未全。且與王無緣。勝辭祖。竟至王所。廣陳法要。王曰。汝今所解。其法何在。宗勝曰。如王治化。當合其道。王所有道。其道何在。王曰。我所有道。將除邪法。汝所有法。將伏何人。祖不起於座。懸知宗勝義墮。召波羅提曰。宗勝不稟吾語。與王論屈。汝急往救。波羅提曰。願假神力。言訖雲起足下。遂乘以見王。王正問宗勝。忽見愕然。忘其所問。而顧波羅提曰。乘空來者是正是邪。提曰。我非邪正。而來正邪。王心若正。我無邪正。王雖驚異。而驕慢方熾。即擯宗勝令出。波羅提曰。王既有道。何擯沙門。我雖無解。願王致問。王怒而問曰。何者是佛。提曰。見性是佛。王曰。師見性否。提曰。我見佛性。王曰。性在何處。提曰。性在作用。王曰。是何作用。我今不見。提曰。今現作用。王自不見。王曰。於我有否。提曰。王若作用。無有不是。王若不用。體亦難見。王曰。若當用時。幾處出現。提曰。若出現時。當有其八。王曰。其八出現。當為我說。波羅提即說。偈曰。在胎為身。處世為人。在眼曰見。在耳曰聞。在鼻辨香。在口談論。在手執捉。在足運奔。徧現俱該沙界。收攝在一微塵。識者知是佛性。不識喚作精魂。王聞偈已。心即開悟。悔謝前非。咨詢法要。王復問波羅提。師承為誰。提曰。大王之叔菩提達摩也。王聞遽勑近臣。迎祖至王宮。祖為王懺悔往非。王聞泣謝。隨詔宗勝歸國。近臣曰。宗勝被謫時。已捐軀投崖矣。祖曰。勝尚在。召之當至。初勝受擯。耻不能正王。遂投身危崖。俄有神人。以手捧承。置於巖上。勝曰。我忝沙門。當與正法為主。不能抑絕王非。是以捐身。自責。神何佑助。願示所以。於是神人乃說偈曰。師壽於百歲。八十而造非。為近至尊故。熏修而入道。雖具少智慧。而多有彼我。所見諸賢等。未甞生珍敬。二十年功德。其心未恬靜。聰明輕慢故。而獲至於此。得王不敬者。常感果如是。自今不疎怠。不久成奇智。諸聖悉存心。如來亦復爾。勝聞偈欣然。遂宴坐巖間。至是王遣使山中召勝。祖謂王曰。知勝來乎。王曰未知。祖曰。再命乃來耳。使者至山。而勝辭。果再命乃至 祖念東震旦國。佛記後五百歲。般若智燈運光於彼。遂囑弟子不若蜜多羅。住天竺傳法。而躬至震旦。乃辭祖塔。別學侶。且謂王曰。勤修白業。吾去一九即回。祖泛重溟。凡三周寒暑。達於南海。實梁普通七年庚子歲。九月二十一日也。廣州刺史蕭昂。具禮迎供。表聞武帝。帝遣使齋詔迎請。以十月一日至金陵。帝問曰。朕即位以來。造寺寫經度僧。不可勝紀。有何功德。祖曰。竝無功德。帝曰。何以無功德。祖曰。此但人天小果有漏之因。如影隨形。雖有非實。帝曰。如何是真功德。祖曰。淨智妙圓。體自空寂。如是功德不以世求。帝又問。如何是聖諦第一義。祖曰。廓然無聖。帝曰。對朕者誰。祖曰不識。帝不悟。

祖知機不契。是月十九日。潛回江北。十一月二十三日。屆洛陽。寓止嵩山少林寺。面壁而坐。終日默然。人莫之測。謂之壁觀婆羅門。有僧神光。久居伊洛。博覽群籍。善談玄理。每歎曰。孔老之教。禮術風規。莊易之書。未盡妙理。近聞達摩大士。住止少林。至人不遙。當造玄境。遂詣祖參承。祖常端坐面壁。莫聞誨勵。光自惟曰。昔人求道。敲骨取髓。刺血濟饑。布髮掩泥。投崖飼虎。古尚若此。我又何人。值大雪。光夜侍立。遲明積雪過膝。立愈恭。祖顧而憫之。問曰。汝久立雪中。當求何事。光悲淚曰。惟願和尚慈悲。開甘露門。廣度群品。祖曰。諸佛無上妙道。曠劫精勤。難行能行。非忍而忍。豈以小德小智輕心慢心。欲冀真乘。徒勞勤苦。光聞祖誨勵。潛取利刀。自斷左臂。置於祖前。祖知是法器。乃曰。諸佛最初求道。為法忘形。汝今斷臂吾前。求亦可在。祖遂因與易名曰慧可。乃曰。諸佛法印即得聞乎。祖曰。諸佛法印。匪從人得。可曰。我心未寧。乞師與安。祖曰。將心來與汝安可良久曰。覔心了不可得。祖曰。我與汝安心竟。

越九年。欲返天竺。命門人曰。時將至矣。汝等盍言所得乎。有道副對曰。如我所見。不執文字。不離文字。而為道用。祖曰。汝得吾皮。尼總持曰。我今所解。如慶喜見阿閦佛國。一見更不再見。祖曰。汝得吾肉。道育曰。四大本空。五陰非有。而我見處。無一法可得。祖曰。汝得吾骨。最後慧可禮拜依位而立。祖曰。汝得吾髓。乃顧慧可而告之曰。昔如來以正法眼。付迦葉大士。展轉囑累而至於我。我今付汝。汝當護持。并授汝袈裟以為法信。各有所表。宜可知矣。可曰。請師指陳。祖曰。內傳法印以契證心。外付袈裟以定宗旨。後代澆薄。疑慮競生。云吾西天之人。言汝此方之子。馮何得法。以何證之。汝今受此衣法。却後難生。但出此衣并吾法偈。用以表明。其化無礙。至吾滅後二百年。衣止不傳。法周沙界。明道者多。行道者少。說理者多。通理者少。潛符密證千萬有餘。汝當闡揚。勿輕未悟。一念回機。便同本得。聽吾偈曰。吾本來茲土。傳法救迷情。一花開五葉。結果自然成。祖又曰。吾有楞伽經四卷。亦用付汝。即是如來心地要門。令諸眾生開示悟入。吾自到此。凡五度中毒。我甞自出而試之置石。石裂。緣吾本離南印。來此東土。見赤縣神州。有大乘氣象。遂踰海越漠。為法求人。際會未諧。如愚若訥。今得汝傳授。吾意已終。言已。乃與徒眾。往禹門千聖寺。止三日。有期城太守楊衒之。早慕佛乘。問祖曰。西天五印師承為祖。其道如何。祖曰。明佛心宗。行解相應。名之曰祖。又問。此外如何。祖曰。須明他心。知其今古。不厭有無。於法無取。不賢不愚。無迷無悟。若能是解。故稱為祖。又曰。弟子歸心三寶。亦有年矣。而智慧昏蒙。尚迷真理。適聽師言。罔知攸措。願師慈悲開示宗旨。祖知懇到。即說偈曰。亦不覩惡而生嫌。亦不觀善而勤措。亦不捨智而近愚。亦不拋迷而就悟。達大道兮過量。通佛心兮出度。不與凡聖同躔。超然名之曰祖。衒之聞偈。悲喜交并。曰願師久住世間。化導群有。祖曰。吾即逝矣。不可久留。根性萬差。多逢愚難。衒之曰。未審何人。弟子為師除得否。祖曰。吾以傳佛秘密。利益迷塗。害彼自安。必無此理。衒之曰。師若不言。何表通變觀照之力。祖不獲已。乃為讖曰。江槎分玉浪。管炬開金鎖。五口相共行。九十無彼。我。衒之莫測。禮辭而去。時魏氏奉釋。禪雋如林。光統律師流支三藏者。僧中鸞鳳。而議多與祖相違。祖玄風所被。有識咸歸。彼徒生嫉。數加毒藥。莫能中傷。至第六度。以化緣既畢。遂端居而逝。塟熊耳山。起塔定林寺。其年魏使宋雲。[-+]嶺回。見祖手携隻履翩翩而逝。雲問師何往。祖曰。西天去。雲歸具說其事。及門人啟壙。棺空惟隻履存焉。詔取遺履少林寺供養。至唐開元十五年丁卯。為信道者竊在五臺。今不知所在。

 

 

-------------

 

給道友的話

張尚德

各位道友:

每逢佳節倍思親,真的非常懷念、掛念、想念你們。

流行病久了,俺是逺望故鄉不可得,真是長安不見使人愁也!這些年來,我非常感謝有緣分在湘潭成立禪門文化的道南書院。

湘潭歷代出現過四十位以上的大禪師,六祖傳人懷讓就在湘潭建立過白雲寺,近代的虛雲和八指頭陀都是湘潭和全國的佛門龍象,尚徳的認識是如果禪門文化鼎盛,個人、家庭、團體、社會、國家和天下一定能歸到人性本來的善良、高貴、平靜與安定。我真的在無盡的懷念中,有說不完的話。

佛法要超越一切,希望你們真能離苦得樂。禪門文化最後是歸到重重無盡、無盡重重的華嚴。祝福各位好好和《華嚴經》所說的諸神與諸佛同在!靜心的體會諸佛菩薩隨時隨地都在發光中,加持我們;深深地在智慧與行動上深化自己,與諸佛菩薩的慈悲喜捨和文殊菩薩的智慧、以及普賢菩薩的行願相應。

除了相信佛與菩薩外也要相信神,華嚴經不僅是歸到佛也是歸到神的。孟子説:「聖而為神」,釋迦牟尼佛一再説「內證聖智即為佛」,現在世亂大家不要懼怕。我忽然想起了辜汪會談辜振甫先生的公子前台灣水泥公司董事長,成允道友,曾在湘潭道南書院三更半夜向我說:「中國是永遠有希望的,因為有儒釋道三家。」

儒家成聖,隨心所欲不逾矩。

道家齊物,道通為一而逍遙遊。

佛家在法界緣起中,四無量心而遊戲三昧。

諸位道友,我們一起放下自己不應該有的自私與愚昧,來為中華民族的復興和人類的和平努力、奉獻到底。

我們都生活在同一個地球和宇宙中,往聖先賢都在強調,人類要相親相愛。讓我們在心靈深處中,把真正的愛掏出來,將真愛化為行動,讓你我他都能離苦得樂,實現〈禮運大同篇〉所說的:

大道之行也

天下為公。

祝福!祝福!千萬祝福!

 

尚德 於台灣達摩書院

二零二零年十月一日

---------------------------

 

超越悠悠

張尚德

            陳子昂說:

 

前不見古人,

後不見來者。

念天地之悠悠,

獨愴然而淚下。

這種說法未必為對。

天地與我並生,萬物與我為一,一切一切本來統一在一起。

所以《金剛經》說:

「一合相」。

看通了,看透了,無法無我了,一切的悠悠,也不悠悠。活著就成為一種超越與享受。本來悠悠,也不悠悠。

重要的是:

要超越悠悠

 

尚德 於台灣達摩書院

二零二零年五月十三日