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唯識新引

《成唯識論》新解 

唯識學會創辦人張尚德述

   達摩書院副院長黃高証

279

究竟位

佛位

此即無漏界,不思議善常,安樂解脫身,大牟尼名法。

《成唯識論》卷十

第五章 究竟位

法身

後究竟位,其相云何?

頌曰。

   此即無漏界,不思議善常,

   安樂解脫身,大牟尼名法。

論曰。

前修習位所得轉依。應知即是究竟位相。

此謂此前二轉依果。即是究竟無漏界攝。

(述記:言究竟者。略有二義。一簡前四位名究竟。二簡二乘名究竟。二乘雖得菩提.涅槃。非究竟義。非高勝故。)

諸漏永盡。非漏隨增。性淨圓明。故名無漏。

(述記:非漏隨增者。即是顯非所緣縛義離二縛義。)

(述記:餘無漏等雖亦名無漏。非究竟無漏。)

界是藏義。此中含容無邊希有大功德故。或是因義。能生五乘世出世間利樂事故。

清淨法界可唯無漏攝。四智心品如何唯無漏。

道諦攝故唯無漏攝。謂佛功德及身土等皆是無漏種性所生。有漏法種已永捨故。

雖有示現作生死身業煩惱等似苦集諦。而實無漏。道諦所攝。

集論等說。十五界等唯是有漏。如來豈無五根五識五外界等。

有義如來功德身土甚深微妙非有非無。離諸分別絕諸戲論。非界處等法門所攝。故與彼說理不相違。

(述記:今三論諸師多為此解。)

有義如來五根五境妙定生故法界色攝。非佛五識。雖依此變。然麁細異。非五境攝。如來五識非五識界。經說佛心恒在定故。論說五識性散亂故。

(述記:對法第一說五識身性散亂故。)

成所作智何識相應?

第六相應。起化用故。

與觀察智性有何別?

彼觀諸法自共相等。此唯起化。故有差別。

此二智品應不並生。一類二識不俱起故。

許不並起於理無違。同體用分俱亦非失。

(述記:如一意識見色.聞聲。)

(述記義演:或前念起妙觀察智說法,後念起成事智現起化身,或前念起成事智現化身,後念起妙觀察智說法,然前後二智行用迅速狀似二智作用並起也。)

或與第七淨識相應。依眼等根緣色等境是平等智作用差別。謂淨第七起他受用身土相者平等品攝。起變化者成事品攝。

豈不此品攝五識得?

非轉彼得體即是彼。如轉生死言得涅槃。不可涅槃同生死攝。是故於此不應為難。

有義如來功德身土如應攝在蘊處界中。彼三皆通有漏無漏。

集論等說十五界等唯有漏者。彼依二乘麁淺境說。非說一切。謂餘成就十八界中唯有後三通無漏攝。佛成就者雖皆無漏。而非二乘所知境攝。

然餘處說佛功德等非界等者。不同二乘劣智所知界等相故。理必應爾。

所以者何?說有為法皆蘊攝故。說一切法界處攝故。十九界等聖所遮故。若絕戲論便非界等。亦不應說即無漏界善常安樂解脫身等。

(述記:說十九界等無垢稱經之所遮。)

又處處說轉無常蘊獲得常蘊。界處亦然。寧說如來非蘊處界。故言非者是密意說。

(述記:涅槃經.莊嚴論.勝鬘經。)

又說五識性散亂者說餘成者。非佛所成。

故佛身中十八界等皆悉具足而純無漏。

此轉依果又不思議。超過尋思言議道故。微妙甚深自內證故。非諸世間喻所喻故。

此又是善。白法性故。清淨法界遠離生滅極安隱故。四智心品妙用無方。極巧便故。二種皆有順益相故。違不善故。俱說為善。

論說處等八唯無記。如來豈無五根三境。此中三釋廣說如前。

一切如來身土等法皆滅道攝。故唯是善。聖說滅道唯善性故。說佛土等非苦集故。佛識所變有漏不善無記相等。皆從無漏善種所生。無漏善攝。

此又是常。無盡期故。清淨法界無生無滅性無變易。故說為常。四智心品所依常故無斷盡故。亦說為常。非自性常從因生故。生者歸滅一向記故。不見色心非無常故。然四智品由本願力所化有情無盡期故。窮未來際無斷無盡。

(述記:其四智品體。無斷及無盡故說常。無斷常者。是不斷常義。報身也。無盡常者。是化身。相續常義。)

此又安樂。無逼惱故。清淨法界眾相寂靜。故名安樂。四智心品永離惱害。故名安樂。此二自性皆無逼惱。及能安樂一切有情。故二轉依俱名安樂。

解脫身

二乘所得二轉依果唯永遠離煩惱障縛無殊勝法。故但名解脫身。

牟尼名法身

大覺世尊成就無上寂默法故名大牟尼。此牟尼尊所得二果永離二障亦名法身。無量無邊力無畏等大功德法所莊嚴故。

體依聚義總說名身。故此法身五法為性。非淨法界獨名法身。二轉依果皆此攝故。

一、三身別相門

(一)自性身

如是法身有三相別。一自性身。謂諸如來真淨法界。受用變化平等所依。離相寂然絕諸戲論。具無邊際真常功德。是一切法平等實性。即此自性亦名法身。大功德法所依止故。

(二)受用身

二受用身。此有二種。一自受用。謂諸如來三無數劫修集無量福慧資糧所起無邊真實功德。及極圓淨常遍色身。相續湛然盡未來際。恒自受用廣大法樂。

二他受用。謂諸如來由平等智示現微妙淨功德身。居純淨土。為住十地諸菩薩眾現大神通轉正法輪決眾疑網。令彼受用大乘法樂。合此二種名受用身。

(三)變化身

三變化身。謂諸如來由成事智變現無量隨類化身。居淨穢土。為未登地諸菩薩眾二乘異生稱彼機宜現通說法令各獲得諸利樂事。

二、五法攝三身門

以五法性攝三身者。有義初二攝自性身。經說真如是法身故。論說轉去阿賴耶識得自性身。圓鏡智品轉去藏識而證得故。中二智品攝受用身。說平等智於純淨土為諸菩薩現佛身故。說觀察智大集會中說法斷疑現自在故。說轉諸轉識得受用身故。後一智品攝變化身。說成事智於十方土現無量種難思化故。又智殊勝具攝三身。故知三身皆有實智。

(述記:第一師。經說真如是法身者。佛地經說。論說轉第八得自性者。論第九說。說平等智於純淨土為諸菩薩現佛身者。佛地論云如餘論說。說觀察智大集會中等者亦在莊嚴論。亦有轉諸轉識得受用身者。是攝論智品說。說成事智於十方土現難思化故者。佛地論說莊嚴論說。又攝論智殊勝具攝三身。)

有義初一攝自性身。說自性身本性常故。說佛法身無生滅故。說證因得非生因故。又說法身諸佛共有。遍一切法猶若虛空。無相無為非色心故。

(述記:自性身本常者。莊嚴論說三種常。如佛地論第七等引。 說佛法身無生滅者。佛地云。讚佛論說。然七十八.解深密亦有此言。法身無生滅。化身有起盡故。說證因得非生因者。世親菩薩金剛般若論說。又說法身諸佛共有等者。佛地論云諸經論說。即對法第一.攝大乘智品等中亦有此說。)

然說轉去藏識得者。謂由轉滅第八識中二障麁重顯法身故。智殊勝中說法身者。是彼依止彼實性故。自性法身雖有真實無邊功德而無為故。不可說為色心等物。

(述記:智殊勝文者。亦可解。以法身是智依止。彼智之實性故。)

四智品中真實功德鏡智所起常遍色身攝自受用。平等智品所現佛身攝他受用。成事智品所現隨類種種身相攝變化身。

說圓鏡智是受用佛。轉諸轉識得受用故。雖轉藏識亦得受用。然說轉彼顯法身故。於得受用略不說之。

(述記:說圓鏡智是受用佛。此莊嚴論文。轉諸轉識得受用者。攝論文。)

又說法身無生無滅唯證因得非色心等。圓鏡智品與此相違。若非受用屬何身攝。

(述記:圓鏡智品是實色.心。與此非色.心違。)

又受用身攝佛不共有為實德。故四智品實有色心皆受用攝。

又他受用及變化身皆為化他方便示現。故不可說實智為體。

雖說化身智殊勝攝。而似智現或智所起。假說智名。體實非智。

(述記:引攝論智殊勝攝三身文。)

但說平等,成所作智能現受用三業化身。不說二身即是二智。故此二智自受用攝。

然變化身及他受用雖無真實心及心所。而有化現心心所法。無上覺者神力難思。故能化現無形質法。

若不爾者。云何如來現貪瞋等。久已斷故。云何聲聞及傍生等知如來心。如來實心等覺菩薩尚不知故。

由此經說。化無量類皆令有心。又說如來成所作智化作三業。

(述記:此涅槃經。下佛地經。)

又說變化有依他心。依他實心相分現故。

(述記:此解深密經文。七十八同。)

(述記義演:解深密經第五云。曼殊室利菩薩復白佛言。世尊如來化身當言有心為無心耶?佛言告善男子非是有心亦非無心。何以故。無自依心故。有依他心故。)

雖說變化無根心等。而依餘說。不依如來。又化色根心心所法無根等用故不說有。

三、三身功德各異門

如是三身雖皆具足無邊功德。而各有異。謂自性身唯有真實常樂我淨。離諸雜染眾善所依無為功德。無色心等差別相用。自受用身具無量種妙色心等真實功德。若他受用及變化身。唯具無邊似色心等利樂他用化相功德。

四、三身二利門

又自性身正自利攝。寂靜安樂無動作故。亦兼利他。為增上緣。令諸有情得利樂故。又與受用及變化身為所依止。故俱利攝。自受用身唯屬自利。若他受用及變化身唯屬利他。為他現故。

五、三身所依土分別門

又自性身依法性土。雖此身土體無差別。而屬佛法相性異故。此佛身土俱非色攝。雖不可說形量小大。然隨事相其量無邊。譬如虛空遍一切處。

自受用身還依自土。謂圓鏡智相應淨識。由昔所修自利無漏純淨佛土因緣成熟。從初成佛盡未來際相續變為純淨佛土。周圓無際眾寶莊嚴。自受用身常依而住。如淨土量身量亦爾。諸根相好一一無邊。無限善根所引生故。功德智慧既非色法。雖不可說形量大小。而依所證及所依身亦可說言遍一切處。他受用身亦依自土。謂平等智大慈悲力由昔所修利他無漏純淨佛土因緣成熟。隨住十地菩薩所宜變為淨土。或小或大或劣或勝前後改轉。他受用身依之而住。能依身量亦無定限。若變化身依變化土。謂成事智大慈悲力由昔所修利他無漏淨穢佛土因緣成熟。隨未登地有情所宜化為佛土。或淨或穢或小或大前後改轉。佛變化身依之而住。能依身量亦無定限。

六、三身諸佛所化身土同異門

自性身土一切如來同所證故。體無差別。自受用身及所依土雖一切佛各變不同。而皆無邊不相障礙。餘二身土隨諸如來所化有情。有共不共。所化共者。同處同時。諸佛各變為身為土。形狀相似不相障礙。展轉相雜為增上緣。令所化生自識變現。謂於一土有一佛身為現神通說法饒益。於不共者。唯一佛變。諸有情類無始時來種性法爾更相繫屬。或多屬一或一屬多。故所化生有共不共。不爾。多佛久住世間各事劬勞實為無益。一佛能益一切生故。

七、身土能所變門

此諸身土若淨若穢無漏識上所變現者。同能變識俱善無漏。

純善無漏因緣所生。是道諦攝非苦集故。

蘊等識相不必皆同。三法因緣雜引生故。

有漏識上所變現者。同能變識皆是有漏。純從有漏因緣所生。是苦集攝。非滅道故。

善等識相不必皆同。三性因緣雜引生故。蘊等同異類此應知。不爾。應無五十二等。

第六章 唯識義

然相分等依識變現。非如識性依他中實。

不爾。唯識理應不成。許識內境俱實有故。

或識相見等從緣生。俱依他起虛實如識。

唯言遣外。不遮內境。不爾真如亦應非實。

內境與識既並非虛。如何但言唯識非境。

識唯內有。境亦通外。恐濫外故但言唯識。

或諸愚夫迷執於境。起煩惱業生死沈淪。不解觀心勤求出離。哀愍彼故說唯識言。令自觀心解脫生死。非謂內境如外都無。

或相分等皆識為性。由熏習力似多分生。真如亦是識之實性。故除識性無別有法。此中識言亦說心所。心與心所。定相應故。

此論三分成立唯識。是故說為成唯識論。

亦說此論名淨唯識。顯唯識理極明淨故。

(述記:言淨者。謂從喻顯。如真如性雖本性淨。若不修習淨無以彰顯。教理俱得。如珠寶等性雖光潔。若不磨瑩無以出光故也。如蘇迷盧雖寶所集。無日輪迴照何以顯光。此論亦爾。)

此本論名唯識三十。由三十頌顯唯識理。乃得圓滿。非增減故

已依聖教及正理。分別唯識性相義。所獲功德施群生。願共速登無上覺。

 

 

英譯(韋達)

§V. NISTHAVASTHA

The Stage of Ultimate Realization

THE DHARMAKAYA

What are the characteristics of the stage of final attainment or ultimate realization (Nisthavastha)?

The Stanza says :

30

This is the Pure Dhatu (the undefiled storehouse realm) Which is inconceivable and incomprehensible, good and eternal, Where one is in a state of blissfulness with one's emancipated body (vimuktikaya); This is the Law of ‘Great Silence’ (mahamuni), the Dharmakaya, realized by the great Buddha, Sakyamuni.

 

The Treatise says:

It should be understood that the 'revolution' or inner transformation (asrayaparavrtti) which is achieved during the preceding stage of exercising cultivation represents the stage of final attainment or ultimate realization. The word 'this' in the Stanza refers to the two fruits (Nirvana and Mahabodhi) resulting from the revolution of the preceding stage. These fruits constitute the Pure Dhatu (undefiled storehouse realm) of final attainment (in contradistinction to the Dhatu of the four preceding stages of 'moral provisioning', etc., and to the Dhatu of the two Vehicles).

 

I. ANASRAVADHATU

The Pure Dhatu

[Translator's Note:

This is 'pure Dharmadhatu'.

The Buddhabhumi Sutra teaches that the Buddhabhumi is made up of five dharmas, namely, the pure Dharmadhatu and the four Transcendental Wisdoms. The Buddhabhumi Sastra studies this pure Dharmadhatu.

‘Free from the impurities of Klesavarana and Jneyavarana; the true and non-erroneous nature of all dharmas; the cause which brings to birth, nourishes and supports the Aryadharmas; the true nature of all Tathagatas; pure in itself from the beginningless past; possessed of diverse qualities more numerous than the atoms of the universes of the ten regions; without birth or destruction, like space; penetrating all dharmas and all beings; neither identical with the dharmas, nor different from them; neither bhava nor abhava; free from all distinguishing marks, conceptions, cogitation; which is only realized by the pure Aryajnana; having as its nature the Tathata which the two Voids reveal; which the Aryas realize partially; which the Buddhas realize completely; that is what is called the pure Dharmadhatu.']

This is called 'pure dhatu', anasravadhatu, 1. because all defiled elements are forever eliminated; 2. because it is not a place to which vices and passions can attach themselves; 3. because it is by nature immaculate whilst, among the saints of the two Vehicles, Jneyavarana remains; 4. because it is complete and perfect whilst the Saiksas only possess the causes of purity; and 5. because it is luminous in nature (in contrast with the realms of the saints of the two Vehicles or of the Bodhisattvas). [The other undefiled dharmas, though also described as 'undefiled', are really not perfectly undefiled.]

Dhatu (storehouse-realm) here has the meaning of storing up, because the great merits contained in it are infinite and sublime. Or perhaps it has the idea of cause, because it can produce the blessings and joys, both mundane and supramundane, of the five Vehicles.

All right, one will say, the pure Dharma-dhatu may truly be said to be exclusively undefiled (anasrava); but how can the mental attributes associated with the four transcendental wisdoms (Jnanas) be exclusively undefiled?

Because all these attributes are comprised in the Noble Truth of the Right Path (margasatyr). This means that the qualities, bodies, and worlds of the Buddha are brought to birth through undefiled Bijas, because the Buddha has completely rejected all Bijas of impure dharmas.

No doubt the Buddha manifests deeds, klesas, etc., which produce a body of Samsara, which leads one to say that there seems to be 'suffering' and the 'cause of suffering' (dukkha and samudayasatyr); but all these manifestations are really undefiled and form part of the Noble Truth of the Right Path.

The Abhidharmasamuccaya says that, among the eighteen Dhatus, fifteen are exclusibely impure (sarava), the five sense-organs (caksurdhatu, etc.), the five objects corresponding to them (rupadhatu, etc.), and the five sense-cnsciousnesses (caksurvijnanadhatu, etc.). Must one believe that the Tathagata, entirely pure (anasrava), has no sense-organs, sense-consciousnesses, and external Dhatus?

1. First doctrine. - [According to the 'Masters of the Three Treatises' (K'uei Chi)], the qualities, bodies and worlds of the Tathagata are very profound and mysterious, neither existent nor non-existent; entirely dissociated from all mental discrimination (Vikalpa), transcending all verbal descriptions, and not comprised at all among Skandhas, Dhatus, Ayatanas, etc. One may therefore say, without contradicting the Abhidharma, that the Buddha is not impure.

2. Second doctrine. - The five sense-organs and the five corresponding objects of a Tathagata, proceeding from a wonderful meditation, are comprised in a Rupa which emerges from the Dharmadhatu (dharmadhaturupa). Although the five consciousnesses of non-Buddhas function in dependence upon the objects (bodies and worlds) which the Buddha develops, yet one must distinguish between the crude and the subtle; what the Buddha develops is subtle and is not included in the category of the five objects (rupadhatu, etc.)

As to the five consciousnesses of the Buddha, they are not comprised in the five vijnanadhatus, because the Sutra says that the mind of the Buddha is constantly absorbed in deep meditation, whereas, as noted in the Abhidharmasastra, the five consciousnesses [of ordinary sentient beings] belong to the plane of distraction and confusion.

The question arises: with which consciousness is the Perfect Achievement Wisdom (Krtyanusthanajnana) associated?

(1)   With the sixth consciousness, because this Wisdom produces the transformation bodies and their multifarious activities (Nirmanas).

But, if it be so, what is the difference between this Wisdom and the Profound Contemplation Wisdom (Pratyaveksanajnana) ?

The latter observes the individual and common characteristics of things, whereas the former creates only transformation bodies and their activities.

But these two Wisdoms should not arise simultaneously, because two consciousnesses of the same kind (e.g., two Manovijnanas) are not simultaneous.

It is not absurd to admit that these Wisdoms are not simultaneous; but, on the other hand, one single consciousness may simultaneously function in two manners. [One single Manovijnana sees colour and hears sound; the Pratyaveksana, in preaching the Dharma, and the Krtyanusthana, in the manifestation of Nirmanas, are at the same time associated with a Manovijnana.]

(2)   Or else with the pure seventh consciousness. To perceive colour, etc., in dependence upon the sense-organs (eye, etc.) is the function of the Universal Equality Wisdom (Samatajnana). The pure seventh consciousness, in so far as it creates the Parasambhogakaya and its 'land',1 is comprised in the Samatajnana; in so far as it creates Nirmanas, it is included in the Perfect Achievement Wisdom (Krtyanusthanajnana).

But, one will say, this last Wisdom is obtained by the transformation (paravrtti) of the five consciousness, is it not? How, then, can it be associated with the seventh consciousness?

Although it is obtained by the transformation of the five consciousnesses, one cannot conclude that it is, by its own nature, one of the five consciousnesses. For instance, it is by the transformation of Samsara that Nirvana is attained. Would one say that Nirvana is included in Samsara?

3. Third doctrine, which is correct.-The 'meritorious qualities' (gunas) and the bodies and lands of the Tathagatas are comprised in the Skandhas, Ayatanas, and Dhatus, as it is fitting that they should be so comprised; but the Skandhas, etc., may be pure (anasrava) or impure (sasrava).

In fact, when the Abhidharmasamuccaya teaches that fifteen Dhatus are exclusively impure, it has in view the crude objects and superficial consciousnesses of the two Vehicles, not the fifteen Dhatus of the Tathagata. Among the eighteen Dhatus, organs-objects-consciousnesses (eye, colour, visual consciousness, etc.), of non-Buddhas (the two Vehicles and Bodhisattvas of the ten Lands), only the last three (Manas, Dharmas, Manovijnana) may be pure; but, as far as the Buddha is concerned, all the eighteen are pure and incomprehensible to the saints of the two Vehicles.

In fact, some other texts (Mahaprajna, etc.) say that the qualities, bodies, etc., of the Buddhas are not comprised in the Dhatus for the reason that these qualities, etc., do not bear any resemblance to the Dhatus which are known by the mediocre knowledge of the adherents of the two Vehicles.

It is certain that the qualities, bodies, etc., of the Buddha are comprised in the Dhatus. - Why? Because, according to the texts, all Samskrtas (conditioned dharmas) are comprised in the five Skandhas, all dharmas are comprised in the eighteen Dhatus and the twelve Ayatanas; there is no nineteenth Dhatu (Vimalakirti).

If the fruit of Buddha (buddhaphala), because it transcends verbal descriptions, is not Dhatu, etc., it should not be said that it is 'the Pure Dhatu, good, eternal, blissful, the body of emancipation', etc.

Again, many texts (Nirvanasutra, Srimalika, Sutralamkara) teach that the Bodhisattva, in becoming Buddha, transforms or abandons impermanent skandhas and acquires permanent skandhas. Similarly for the Dhatus and Ayatanas. Is it therefore permitted to say that the Buddha is not Skandhas-Ayatanas-Dhatus? When one says that it is not Skandhas, etc., it is an intentional declaration. [The meaning is that these Skandhas, etc., are not perceptible to inferior wisdoms].

Similarly, the declaration that 'the five consciousnesses belong to the plane of distraction and confusion’ concerns the five consciousnesses of non-Buddhas.

Let us therefore conclude that the eighteen Dhatus are found in the body of the Buddha but are absolutely pure (anasrava).

 

The fruit of Asrayaparavrtti present four characteristics:

1. It is ‘inconceivable’ and 'incomprehensible', because it is beyond mind and expression; because, sublime and profound, it is realized by the Bodhisattva in himself; and because no worldly comparison can give any idea of it.

2. It is good, because it is of the nature of white dharmas.

In fact, the pure Dharmadhatu (that is to say, the Tathata which is realized as the fruit of Buddhahood), exempt from birth and destruction, is very secure and solid.

As to the mental attributes associated with the four Wisdoms, their mysterious functions and activities are incomparable and extremely skilful.

The fruit of Asrayaparavrtti, whether asamskrta (Dharmadhatu) or samskrta (the four Wisdoms), is beneficent and opposed to the bad.

It is true that, according to the Abhidharmasamuccaya, 'eight Ayatanas are exclusively non-defined, that is, the five sense-organs, smell, taste, and touch'; but one cannot, on the basis of this declaration, conclude that these eight Ayatanas are lacking in the Buddha or that they are, in the Buddha, non-defined. The three explanations to be given here are the same as those given above for the fifteen exclusively impure Dhatus.

The body, the land, the Tathata, the four Wisdoms; everything that refers to the Tathagatas is exclusively good, because all this is comprised in the Noble Truths of the Cessation of Suffering (Nirodha) and the Right Path leading to it (Marga); because the Sutras and Sastras are agreed that these two Truths are exclusively good; because the Abhidharma, 6, declares that the Lands, etc., of Buddhas are neither Suffering (duhkha, painful and impure existence) nor Cause of Suffering (samudaya, cause of similar existence).

But, one may ask, does the consciousness of the Buddha not manifest itself in these good-impure or non-defined things, such as created bodies, etc.? - These things are, for people -who see them, similar to good-impure or non-defined objects; but all that which the Buddha develops is, in itself, good and pure, for it proceeds from good and pure Bijas.

3. It is eternal, because it never exhausts itself.

As for the pure Dharmadhatu, it is exempt from birth and destruction, and its nature is immutable. Hence it is said to be eternal.

As for the four Wisdoms, their supporting basis [that is, the Tathata] being eternal, they are never interrupted, and they never exhaust themselves. Hence they, too, are said to be eternal, not that they are eternal in themselves, since they are produced by causes, since they are born, and it is an absolute declaration of the Bhagavat that 'that which is born must eventually be destroyed'. There is no Rupa, no Citta, which is not impermanent. But, given the force of the pious vow (mahapranidhana) to convert all sentient beings who are inexhaustible in number, the four Wisdoms will last up to the end of all future ages; the two bodies of Sambhoga are not interrupted and the bodies of Nirmana will renew themselves without end.

 

4. It is blissful, for it does not torment.

The pure Dharmadhatu is blissful, being the cessation of all perception and ideation.

The four Wisdoms are forever exempt from pain and suffering; hence they are described as blissful.

Mahabodhi and Nirvana, which are the two fruits of Asrayaparavrtti, are both described as blissful, because they are by nature non-tormenting and are capable of promoting the bliss and beatitude of all sentient beings.

 

2. VlMUKTEKAYA

The fruit of the two paravrttis obtained by the saints of the two Vehicles, inasmuch as it is forever disentangled from the bonds of Klesavarana, and as it is not embellished by very distinguished dharmas [e.g., the ten powers], is only given the name of vimuktikaya, 'emancipated body'.

 

3. DHARMAKAYA

Bhagavat Mahabuddha, being possessed of the supreme qualities of Muni (tranquillity and silence), is named Mahamuni. The two fruits obtained by this Muni, being completely and forever dissociated from the two Avaranas, are designated not only by the term Vimuktikaya but also by the term Dharmakaya. They are in fact embellished by dharmas of great qualities (mahagunadharmas), immeasurable and infinite, for instance, the ten powers, the four intrepidities, etc.

The term kaya has the triple meaning of self-nature (svabhava), support (asraya), and accumulation (samcaya).

Therefore the Dharmakaya consists of five dharmas, namely, pure Dharmadhatu and the four Wisdoms. It is not only the pure Dharmadhatu that is named Dharmakaya, for the fruits of the two paravrttis are included in the Dharmakaya.

1. Three Kayas

The Dharmakaya is triple, consisting of three bodies (kayas) [which are all bodies of mahagunadharmas].

(1) Svabhavikakaya, the body of self-nature, [so named because it is the essential nature (svabhava) of the Buddhas]. It is the pure Dharmadhatu of the Tathagatas, the immutable supporting basis for the two Sambhogakayas and the Nirmanakaya, free from the ten nimittas, peaceful, beyond words and concepts, possessed of infinite real and eternal qualities. It is the immutable and identical nature of all dharmas.

This Svabhavikakaya receives also the name of Dharmakaya, because it is the supporting basis for mahagunadharmas.

(2) Sambhogakaya, which is of two kinds.

a.     Svasambhogakaya. This consists of the infinite real qualities created by the accumulation of immeasurable merits and wisdom cultivated by the Tathagatas during three Asamkhyeyakalpas; it is a material body (rupakqya), perfect, pure, eternal and omnipresent; it forms a continuous series and is always profound and clear; it will last until the end of all future ages; it itself perpetually enjoys the ample beatitude of the Dharma [which is procured by infinite merits.]

b.    Parasambhogakaya. The Tathagata, by means of his transcendental Wisdom of Universal Equality (Samatajnana), manifests a body possessed of subtle and pure qualities, which inhabits a completely pure land; this body, thanks to his Profound Contemplation Wisdom (Pratyaveksanajnana), displays for the Bodhisattvas of the ten Bhumis a spectacle of mystical and supernatural powers; turns the Wheel of Dharma, and breaks through the net of doubts, thus enabling the Bodhisattvas to enjoy the beatitude of the Mahayana Dharma.

These two bodies therefore constitute the Sambhogakaya, the 'body of beatitude'.

(3) Nirmanakaya. The Tathagatas, by means of their Wisdom of Perfect Achievement (Krtyanusthanajnana), cause to appear innumerable and varied transformation bodies (nirmanakayas), which inhabit pure and dirty lands in accordance with the nature and characteristics of the various classes of sentient beings. For the advantage of those Bodhisattvas who have not yet attained the Bhumis, the devotees of the two Vehicles, and the Prthagjanas, these Nirmanakayas, taking into account the needs of each one, display their supernatural powers and teach the Dharma in such a manner that all these people obtain well-being and good fortune.

2. The five Dharmas and the Bodies

First theory

(1)   The Svabhavikakaya is composed of the Dharmadhatu and the first of the four Jnanas (Wisdoms), i.e., the Great Mirror Wisdom (Adarsajnana).

In fact, according to the Sutra (Buddhabhumi Sutra), the Bhutatathata is the Dharmakaya. And according to the Sastra (Samgraha, Asvabhava), in causing the Alayavijnana to cease through transformation, one obtains the Svabhavikakaya; the Mahadarsajnana causes a 'revolution' of the eighth consciousness and the Svabhavikakaya is obtained.

(2)   The Sambhogakaya is composed of the two intermediate Wisdoms, that is, the Wisdom of Universal Equality (Samatajnana) and the Wisdom of Profound Contemplation (Pratyaveksanajnana).

In fact, according to the Sastra (Sutralamkara), the Universal Equality Wisdom, in the perfectly pure land, manifests the body of the Buddha before the Bodhisattvas, while the Profound Contemplation Wisdom, in the great assemblies, preaches the Dharma, cuts off doubts, and manifests its innate powers. The Sastra (Samgraha) says that the Sambhogakaya is obtained by the revolution or transformation of the seven Pravrttivijnanas.

(3)   The Nirmanakaya is composed of the Wisdom of Perfect Achievement (Krtyanusthanajnana).

In fact, according to the Sastra (Sutralamkara), this Wisdom, in the universes of the ten cardinal points, manifests creations and transformations that are innumerable, varied, and incomprehensible. Again, according to the Sastra (Samgraha), the three Kayas (bodies) are composed of transcendental and excellent Wisdoms; it should therefore be understood that all the three Kayas consist of real Wisdom, real Mind.

 

Second Theory.

(1) The Svabhavikakaya is composed of the Dharmadhatu alone.

a.     According to the treatises (Sutralamkara and Buddhabhumisastra), the Svabhavikakaya is by nature eternal.

b.    According to many texts (Buddhastavasastra, Yogasastra, Samdhinirmocana, etc.), the Buddhadharmakaya is exempt from birth and destruction (while the Nirmanakaya is born and perishes).

c.     Vasubandhu in his Vajracchedikaprajnaparamitasastra teaches that this Body is obtained by causes which render it to be present, not by causes which produce it. [Hence it is asamskrta; hence it is pure Dharmadhatu].

d.    Several texts (Abhidharma, Samgraha, Buddhabhumi) say that this Dharmakaya is common to all Tathagatas, penetrates all dharmas, and is similar to space, without distinguishing marks, without causes; it is neither Rupa nor Citta.

Refutation of objections. - According to the texts, this Body is obtained through the cessation of the Alayavijnana. The meaning is that, when one has transmuted and annihilated the crude dross, i.e., the crude and heavy Bijas, of the two Avaranas of the eighth consciousness, the Dharmakaya is manifested. According to certain texts, the Dharmakaya comes under the category of 'excellent and transcendental Wisdom': these texts express themselves in this manner because the Dharmakaya is the supporting basis for the Wisdoms and is their real nature. The Svabhavikadharmakaya, although possessing infinite qualities, real Rupas and real Cittas, is asamskrta (unconditioned non-active dharma): one cannot therefore say that it is Rupa or Citta.

(2)   The Svasambhogakaya is composed of all the real qualities of the four Wisdoms and of the material body (rupakaya) produced by the Mirror Wisdom (Adarsajnana).

(3)   The Parasambhogakaya is the Buddhakaya the manifestation of which is caused by the Universal Equality Wisdom (Samatajnana).

(4)   The Nirmanakaya is, by reason of the varieties of beings to be converted, the totality of bodies of different kinds which the Wisdom of Perfect Achievement (Krtyanusthanajnana) causes to appear.

[As to the Wisdom of Profound Contemplation (Pratyaveksanajnana), its relation to the last two bodies depends on the Bodhisattva who makes use of it for teaching the Dharma or for producing bodies for the benefit of other beings].

 

Explanation

(1)   The Sutralamkara says that the Mirror Wisdom is the Sambhogakaya, and the Samgraha says that the Sambhogakaya is obtained through the revolution or transformation of the seven Pravrttivijnanas. In fact, the revolution of the Alayavijnana also produces the Sambhogakaya, but the Samgraha, teaching that the Dharmakaya is manifested by this revolution, omits to mention it as essential to the acquisition of the Samhogakaya.

The Mirror Wisdom should not be considered to be an element of the Dharmakaya. The Buddhastavasastra says, as mentioned above, that the Dharmakaya is exempt from birth and destruction; the Vajracchedikasastra says that there are no causes which produce it, but only causes which manifest it; that it is neither Rupa nor Citta. The characteristics of the Mirror Wisdom are opposite to this; it is therefore not integrated with the Dharmakaya. If it is not of the Sambhogakaya, to what body will it belong?

(2)   The Svasambhogakaya comprehends all the special and real qualities of the Buddha. Therefore all the real Rupa and Citta of the Buddha and the four Wisdoms are comprised in this Kaya.

(3)-(4). In fact, the Parasambhogakaya and the Nirmanakaya are only manifestations, skilful expedients for the conversion of beings; it cannot be said of them that they are, by nature, real Wisdom.

The Samgraha says that the Nirmanakaya consists of excellent and transcendental Wisdom. This treatise expresses itself in this manner because the Nirmanakaya manifests itself with the appearances of Wisdom, or because it is produced by Wisdom. It is only by metaphor that one may call it Wisdom, Its substance is not Wisdom at all.

The texts teach that the Universal Equality Wisdom (Samatajnana) manifests the Parasambhogakaya and that the Perfect Achievement Wisdom (Krtyanusthanajnana) manifests the Nirmanakaya of triple activity. But they do not say that these two Bodies are Wisdom, Hence, these two Wisdoms are comprised in the Svasambhogakaya.

Although the Nirmanakaya and the Parasambhogakaya are not real Cittas and Caittas, nevertheless they manifest themselves as Cittas and Caittas, because the inconceivable spiritual powers of the supreme Buddha are capable of creating and manifesting dharmas without form and matter.

If it were not so, how could the Buddha manifest in His Nirmanakaya desire, hatred, and other passions which He has long since cut away? And how can the Sravakas and the animals know the thoughts of the Tathagata when the Sambodhibodhisattvas themselves do not know His real mind?

According to the Nirvanasutra, the Buddha creates innumerable kinds of fictitious beings possessed of mental activities.

According to the Buddhabhumi Sutra, the Krtyanusthanajnana of the Tathagata creates three kinds of deeds.

According to the Samdhinirmocana (Yogasastra, 78), the Nirmita, i.e., the being created by the power of creation of the mind of the Buddha, has ‘a mind depending on another', because the Buddha causes to appear an image (nimittabhaga) which has its supporting basis in the real mind of another.

The texts say that the power of creation does not extend to the creation of sense-organs, mind and mental attributes: this declaration concerns the power of creation of non-Buddhas, - not that of the Tathagata; or else, if these texts deny such creations, it is because the organs, the mind and the mental attributes of created beings do not function as real organs, etc.

3. Different attributes of the three Bodies (Trikaya)

These three Kayas, although possessed of infinite meritorious qualities, are different from one another.

The Svabhavikakaya is absolutely real, eternal, blissful, supreme, and pure, Free from all contaminations, it is the supporting basis for all that is good. Possessed of unconditioned non-active qualities (hence eternal and exempt from birth and destruction), it has neither the character nor the activity of Rupa, Citta and Caittas.

The Svasambhogakaya is possessed of immeasurable, multifarious real qualities, Rupa, Citta, Caittas.

As to the last two Bodies, namely, the Parasambbogakaya and the Nirmanakaya, they are possessed of infinite apparent qualities which are active for benefit and a happiness of others, - apparent Rupa, Citta and Caittas.

4. The three Bodies and the two Beneficiaries

The Svabhavikakaya, from the direct point of view, is 'for personal benefit' since it is peaceful, blissful, immobile and inactive. From the indirect point view, it is also 'for the benefit of others' since it is the 'sovereign condition' (adhipratyaya) which causes sentient beings to obtain well-being and happiness, Furthermore, as the supporting basis for both the Sambhogakaya and the Nirmanakaya, it is both for personal good and the good of others.

 The Svasambhogakaya is solely for personal good, while the Parasambhogakaya and the Nirmanakaya are for the good of others since they are manifestations for others.

5. The three Bodies and their Lands

(1) The Svabhavikakaya or Dharmakaya (Tathata, pure Dharmadhatu) has the Dharmata as its Land or World. Although there is no difference in essential nature between the Body and the Land on which it depends for support, nevertheless, one may say that the Body is related to the Buddha while the Land is related to the Dharmata, since one can establish the distinction between the substance, i.e., the svabhava which is the Dharmata, and its manifestation, i.e., the laksana which is the Buddha.

Evidently neither this Body nor this Land is Rupa (matter or form). One cannot therefore say that their dimensions are Large or small. However, taking into account things in general and their characteristics, one may say that their dimensions are infinite. Like space, they extend everywhere.

 (2) The Svasambhogakaya 'returns and supports itself on its own Land'. [That is to say: the Body and the Land where it resides are one, there being no Land outside or apart from the Body]. The pure consciousness (i.e., the pure eighth consciousness), associated with the Mirror Wisdom (Adarsajnana), develops or transforms itself into a pure Buddhaland, perfect, without end, adorned with jewels. This development or transformation is the result of the maturity of the pure causes (hetupratyaya: pure Bijas) which produce a pure Buddhaland, causes which the Bodhisattva has formerly cultivated for his own good. This development or transformation commences at the moment when the Bodhisattva becomes Buddha and will last without interruption throughout all the eternity of time. The Svasambhogakaya rests on this Pure Land that has evolved and resides in it permanently.

Similar to the dimensions of the Land are the dimensions of the Body. Each of thirty-two distinguished marks (laksanas) and the eighty secondary features (anuvyanjanas) of this body of Buddha is infinite, for it proceeds from unlimited roots of excellence.

The meritorious qualities (gunas) of this Body and its wisdom (jnanaprajna) are not dharmas of Rupa: one cannot attribute to them large or small dimensions or figures; but, inasmuch as the Svasambhogakaya has as its supporting basis the Dharmatakaya which extends everywhere, it may be said that it, too, extends everywhere. Similarly, the meritorious qualities are ubiquitous like the Body of Svasambhoga which supports them; the same is true in the case of the Wisdom, like the Tathata which it knows.

(3)      The Parasambhogakaya also rests on its own Land. By the power of great benevolence and compassion, by virtue of the maturity of the pure causes which produce a pure Buddhaland, causes which the Bodhisattva has formerly cultivated for the good of others, in conformity with the needs of the Bodhisattvas of the ten Bhumis, the Universal-Equality Wisdom (Samatajnana) transforms itself into a Pure Land, either small or large, either inferior or superior, subject to change and modification from time to time. It is on this Land that the Parasambhogakaya rests and resides.

The dimensions of this Body, like those of the Land on which it resides, are undetermined.

(4)      The Nirmanakaya rests on a 'created' Land. By the power of great benevolence and compassion, by virtue of the maturity of the pure causes which produce a pure or tainted Buddhaland, causes which the Bodhisattva has formerly cultivated for the good of others, in conformity with the needs of those sentient beings who have not yet obtained a Bhumi, the Wisdom of Perfect Achievement (Krtyanusthanjnana) creates a Buddhaland, either pure or tainted, either small or great, subject to change and modification from time to time.

The Nirmanakaya of the Buddha rests on this Land and resides there. Its dimensions, like those of the Land, are not determined.

6. The multiple Buddhas and the Bodies

The Svabhavikakaya and its Land are 'realized' in an identical manner by all Tathagatas. No distinction is possible between the Svabhavikakaya of a Buddha and those of other Buddhas.

A Svasambhogakaya with its Land belongs to each Buddha as his own particular property: each, for himself, attains supreme enlightenment, develops a body and a land of personal Sambhoga. Although the transformations of these bodies and lands are different, yet all of them are infinite and do not represent obstacles to one another.

As to the last two bodies, they are relative to the sentient beings that the Buddhas have to convert. These beings, for their conversion, depend on several Buddhas or on one single Buddha. From this it follows that the last two bodies are either common to several Buddhas or peculiar to one Buddha.

What happens when the conversion of one single being depends on several Buddhas? - At the same time and in the same place, each of these Buddhas develops a Nirmanakaya and a land: all these 'creations' resemble one another in appearance and do not represent obstacles to one another. They interpenetrate and intermingle to serve as the 'sovereign condition' (adhipatipratyaya) which causes the being to be converted to see such and such a Nirmanakaya: the consciousness of this being manifests itself as a nimitta of Nirmanakaya. The individual becomes aware that in a certain land there is a Buddhakaya who displays supernatural powers and preaches the Dharma for his or her benefit.

When the beings to be converted are non-common, a single Buddha creates a Nirmanakaya for the beings who depend on him.

It is in the nature of things that certain karmic relations have existed between Buddhas and sentient beings since before the beginning of time; several Buddhas will together save a certain being; or a certain Buddha, all alone, will save several beings. The beings to be converted rely, therefore, either on one Buddha or on several Buddhas, If it were otherwise, what is the use of many Buddhas remaining together in the world for such long aeons, each working in his own way, since one single Buddha would be able to save all beings?

7. The manifestation of Bodies and Lands

These bodies and lands, pure or defiled, are manifested through the evolutions of taintless consciousness, in the same way as are pure or defiled dharmas evolved by ordinary consciousness. In common with their evolving consciousness, they are perfectly good and pure.

The reason is that that which is born of exclusively good and pure causes (hetupratyaya, Bijas) is comprised in the Noble Truth of the Right Path (Margasatyr), and not in that of Suffering or the Cause of Suffering (Duhkha or Samudayasatyr).

The nimittas of consciousness, Skandhas, etc., are not necessarily identical, because these three dharmas (Skandhas, Ayatanas, Dhatus) proceed from Bijas of different natures.

The bodies and lands that are manifested through the evolutions of impure consciousness are, in common with their evolving consciousness, exclusively impure, the reason being that that which is born of exclusively impure causes is comprised in the Noble Truth of Suffering or the Cause of Suffering and not in that of the Cessation of Suffering (Nirodhamarga).

The nimittabhaga of a good, bad, or non-defined consciousness (darsanabhaga) is not necessarily good, bad, or non-defined; because the nimittabhaga and the darsanabhaga may be derived from causes of different natures.

Similarly, it is not a general rule that the Nimittabhaga (Skandhas, etc.) should be of the same kind as the Darsanabhaga or of a different kind. If of the same kind, the distinction of the five Skandhas, the twelve Ayatanas, and the eighteen Dhatus would disappear.

 

§VI. VIJNAPTIMATRATA

The Nimittabhaga (perceived division), being a manifestation evolved on the basis of consciousness, is not, like consciousness itself, a real thing (Parinispanna) included in Paratantra or the ‘nature of dependence on others'. Were it considered to be real, the principle of Vijnaptimatrata, ‘Mere-Consciousness', would not be established, since both consciousness and the internal object (artka) would then be real.2

But there is another doctrine.

The Nimittabhaga, the Darsanabhaga, etc., are born of causes (i.e., of Bijas), all 'depending on others for production’, like consciousness itself They are therefore similar to consciousness itself in respect of their false or real nature.

The word matra, ‘Mere-Consciousness’, denies all external things (Parikalpita); it does not deny internal things (the two Bhagas); otherwise, this word would also deny the Bhutatathata, which would then be unreal.

But, one may ask, if internal things, like consciousness, are not false, why is it that people say mere-consciousness and not mere-object?

People say mere-consciousness and not mere-object:

1. Because consciousness is exclusively internal while objects are both internal and external Fearing that sentient beings may admit the reality of external objects, the Buddha teaches vijnaptimatrata;

2. Because the ignorant misunderstand and cling to objects, produce klesha and karman, are sunk in Samsara, and do not exert themselves to obtain deliverance by the contemplation of the Mind. The Buddha, out of compassion, teaches vijnaptimatrata to enable them to obtain deliverance from Samsara by dedicating themselves to the contemplation of the Mind. But that is not to say that internal objects are absolutely non-existent in the same way as are external objects.

3. Or perhaps, - taking into account the system of Sthiramati which does not admit the Nimittabhaga and which recognizes only consciousness itself - internal objects (Darsanabhaga, etc.) have as their essential nature (substance, avabhava) consciousness itself (svasamvittibhaga). The latter, by the force of the perfuming energy (vasana), manifests itself as if it comprises many Bhagas, On the other hand, the Bhutatathata is the real nature of consciousness. Therefore there is no dharma which is outside consciousness. The term ‘consciousness’ also indicates the mental attributes which are associated with the mind.

The present treatise, which consists of three parts, Stanzas 1 and 2a, Stanzas 2b - 25, and Stanzas 26-30, establishes the doctrine of Vijnaptimatrata. It is therefore named Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-sastra, Treatise on the Establishment of Vijnaptimatrata'.

It is also named Vijnaptimatratavisuddhi, 'purification of Vijnaptimatrata', because it is a perfectly clear and pure exposition of the meaning of Vijnaptimatrata. [Just as Mount Sumeru, with all its jewels, has to wait for the noonday sun in order to shine with full brilliance, just as precious stones have to be cut and polished, so this doctrine of Vijnaptimatrata has to be 'purified’ by the sacred teaching and logical reasoning … K'uei Chi].

The original work on which the present treatise is a commentary is named Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-trimsika, because, in thirty stanzas, it expounds the meaning of Vijnaptimatrata in its perfection, without adding anything to it or taking anything away from it.

The exposition of the nature and the characteristics of Vijnaptimatrata on the basis of the sacred teachings and right reasoning has now been completed. May the merits of this work be bestowed on all living beings; and may all living beings attain Supreme Enlightenment together and with all possible speed.

 

 

1 'Land' used here in the sense of 'realm' or 'world', e.g., the Pure Land of Amitabha or Amita Buddha.

2 See Section on ‘The Three Natures’ in Book VIII.

 

 

中譯(黃高証)

§5 究竟位

究竟成就的階段

法身

究竟成就或最終實證階段的特點是什麼?

《唯識三十頌》說:

此即無漏界(未染污的性狀),

它是不可想像和不可思議的,至善而永恆,

安樂解脫身;

這就是大佛釋迦牟尼所顯現的“大寂靜”法。

論釋:

於前一階段修習位所得轉依,應知即是究竟覺悟時的相狀。頌中的“此”一字,是指前一階段的二轉依果(涅槃和大菩提)。這些果屬於究竟位的無漏界攝(有別於“資糧位”等四個階段和二乘的境界)。

1無漏界

[英譯韋達註:

此即“無漏法界”。

      《佛地經》說:佛具五法,即無漏清淨法界和四智(大圓鏡智、平等性智、妙觀察智、成所作智)。《佛地經論》對無漏清淨法有進一步闡釋:

   “清淨法界者,謂離一切煩惱所知客塵障垢,一切有為無為等法無倒實性,一切聖法生長依因,一切如來真實自體,無始時來自性清淨,具足種種過十方界極微塵數性相功德,無生無滅,猶如虛空遍一切法,一切有情平等共有,與一切法不一不異,非有非無,離一切相,一切分別、一切名言皆不能得,唯是清淨聖智所證,二空無我所顯真如為其自性,諸聖分證、諸佛圓成,如是名為清淨法界。”]

之所以稱其“無漏界”,因為1.所有染污因都已永遠除盡;2.不被惡習和情緒所染;3其性清淨圓明,有別於具所知障的二乘聖者;4. 它是完全圓滿的,不同於有學唯具無漏因;5性淨圓明(有別於二乘聖者或菩薩境界) [二乘或菩薩的無漏法,雖然名為'無漏',但實際上並不是究竟無漏。]

      這裡的「界」字有儲存的意義,因為它包含無邊希有大功德。或者「界」是「因」義,因為它能產生人、天等五乘世出世間的利樂事業

      因此,有問,清淨法界可以說是唯無漏攝但四智相應心品怎麼也說是唯無漏呢?

因為所有這些屬性都是道諦所攝。這意味著如來功德、佛身和佛土是通過無漏種而現起的,因為佛已經永捨一切有漏法種。

      毫無疑問地,佛雖示現生死身、業煩惱等,看似有苦諦和集諦。但是,所有這些示現都是無漏的,並且是道諦的一部分。

      《阿毘達磨雜集論》說,在十八界中,有十五個唯是有漏,即五根(眼根等)、五境(色法等)、五識(眼識等)。現在說佛身唯無漏攝,如來豈能沒有根、識、境

      1. 第一種說法:[窺基大師按:根據三論諸師的說法],如來功德及所現身土,至為玄奧微妙。既不是有也不是無,完全超脫了所有的分別,超越了所有的語言描述,非蘊、界、處等法可攝。因此,佛身無漏與《阿毘達磨雜集論》所言,並不衝突。

      2. 第二種說法:如來的五根、五境,由妙定生,屬於法界色。未成佛者的五識,雖依佛境(身土),但是粗細有別。佛境微妙,不屬於五俗境(如色界等)的範疇。

至於如來的五識,不屬於世俗的五識界,因為佛經說,佛心恒在定中。然而,正如《阿毘達磨雜集論》所言[凡夫眾生的] 五識是散亂的。

問題是:成所作智與哪個識有關?

1) 成所作智與第六識有關,因為成所作智能應機現起分身的變化作用(化用)。

但如果是這樣的話,成所作智和妙觀察智有何區別呢?

妙觀察智觀察事物的自相共相,而成所作智只能顯現化身及其活動。

假如成所作智與第六識有關,則成所作與妙觀察二智品應不同時並生,因為兩個同類的識(例如兩個第六意識)就應不同時並生。

答:若承認二智品不同時俱起,並不違反道理。但另一方面,一識是可以同時有二用的  [如第六意識,既見色又可聞聲;既以妙觀察智說法,又以成所作智示現化用,二用同時與意識相應。]

2) 或有說成所作智與第七淨識相應。因為平等智品的差別作用,可以依眼等根,緣色等境。第七淨識現起他受用身土1相者,屬平等性智所攝起變化身土相者,是成所作智所攝

但有人責難,這成所作智心品,難道不是由轉五識而得的嗎?怎麼又與第七識有關呢?

雖然此智是由轉前五識而得,但這並不表示成所作智本身是五識。譬如說轉生死得涅槃,難道涅槃本身是在生死中嗎?所以對此不應責難。

3. 第三種說法,此為正義。如來的功德及所現身土,皆如其所應,包含在蘊、處、界中蘊、處、界三,兼通有漏、無漏

事實上,《阿毘達磨集論》說,十五界等唯有漏者,那是依二乘人的粗境和淺識而說的,並不是在講如來的十五界。非佛(十地菩薩、二乘)的十八界中,根(眼等)、(色等)、識(眼識等),只有後三者(意、法、意識)可通無漏。佛的十八界都是無漏,但二乘聖人無法理解。

事實上,其他經文(如《大般若經》等)說,佛的功德、身等,不包含在界中,因為這些功德與二乘劣智認知的諸界,沒有任何相似之處

可以肯定的是,佛之功德、身等,仍都包含在諸中,為什麼呢?因為,根據經文,有為法皆五蘊所攝,一切法皆十八界和十二處所攝,並沒有另外的第十九界。

   若因為佛果超諸言語戲論,便說它不是界等,那就也不應該說它是無漏界、善、常、安樂、解脫身等。

      再者,許多經文(如《涅槃經》、《勝鬘經》、《莊嚴論》等)教導,菩薩在成佛時,轉化或棄捨無常蘊,而得常蘊,界、處也是如此,怎麼能說佛沒有蘊、處、界呢?當知,說佛功德非蘊等攝,這是密意的方便說 [意思是,佛的蘊等,是劣智者無從測知的]

      同樣地,“五識之性散亂”的說法,是指其餘未成佛者的五識。

因此得出結論:佛身中完全具足十八界等,它們是純然無漏的。

      轉依果的特點有四:

1. 轉依果是“不可想像”和“不可思議的”,因為它超越了尋思和言語表達,微妙甚深,乃菩薩自內證,非世俗譬喻可以說明

2. 轉依果是善的,以「白淨法」為性

      事實上,清淨法界(也就是佛果所證真如),遠離生滅,極其安穩。

      至於四智相應心品,它們的妙用無方,極盡善巧方便。

      轉依果,無論是無為(法界),還是有為(四智),其相順益,皆違不善,故說為善。

      誠然,根據《阿毘達磨雜集論》的說法,“十二處裏有八處唯是無記,即五根,香,味和觸”。但是,不能根據此說法,便斷言,佛沒有這八處,或說佛的八處也是無記。對此問題,解釋有三,如同前文對「十五有漏法」的解釋。

一切如來身土、如如、四智等法,都是至善的,所有這些都屬滅諦和道諦所攝因為經論中說,滅、道二諦唯是善性;《對法論》卷6也說:佛的身土非苦諦(痛苦和染污的存在)、非集諦(苦因)。

      但有人可能會問,佛識難道不會變現有漏不善或無記(如所變身等)嗎?如果有人只看表相,便會以為是有漏不善或無記。但佛所變現的一切,本性皆是無漏善,因為它是由無漏善種所生。

3轉依果是永恆的,因為它無窮無盡

      無漏法是不生不滅的,性質不變。因此它被認為是永恆的。

至於四智,它們所依的真如是常能依的智品無斷無盡。因此,四智也被說成是永恆的,但不是說四智本身是永恆的。因為四智是由因而生,既從因生,正如佛一向說的,“有生必有滅”。色、心本無常,但由本願力故,四智心品所化有情無有盡期,至未來際。此二受用身沒有間斷,化身將無休止地隨緣應化。

4 轉依果安樂無

無漏法界安樂無,所有覺知和意念歸於寂靜

      四智心品永遠離開痛苦和折磨,因此稱為安樂。

      大菩提和涅槃二轉依果,皆名安樂,因為它們本質上都無逼惱,能夠利益安樂一切有情

2. 解脫身

二乘聖者所成就的二轉依果,只是永離煩惱障的繫縛,尚未得殊勝法(例如,十力),所以只稱為解脫身。

3. 牟尼名法身

      大覺世尊成就無上的寂默法(清淨聖默),被稱為大牟尼。此牟尼尊永離二障,成就二果。所以不但名解脫身,也稱為法身。事實上,它們是由無量無邊十力、四無畏等大功德法所莊嚴而成。

“身 ”一詞有三重含義:自性、依止、眾德所聚

因此法身由五法組成,即凊淨法界及四智。並非只有清淨法界可名法身,因為二轉依果亦法身攝。

1.三身

法身有三種身相 [,皆是大功德法]

1) 自性身 [如此稱之是因為它即是諸佛本性]。自性身即如來清淨法界,為二受用身與變化身平等所依基礎,遠離諸相,寂然超諸戲論,具有無邊無際的真常功德。這是所有法的平等實性

自性身也被稱為法身,因為它是大功德法的基礎。

2) 受用身,分兩種。

a、 自受用身。包含無量真實功德,這些功德是諸於三大阿僧祇劫,修集無量福慧資糧所成的。自受用身極圓滿清淨,色身常遍相續不斷,湛然明徹,直至未來際,恆自受用廣大法樂 [這是由無邊功德所引生]

b、 他受用身。如來由平等性智,示現微妙淨功德身,居住於純淨國土。此身以妙觀察智,為諸十地菩薩顯現大神通,轉正法輪,決斷一切疑網使菩薩受用大乘法樂

因此,這兩種身稱為“受用身”。

3變化身諸如來由成所作智,根據各類眾生的根性和機緣,變現無量的隨類化身,居住於淨土和穢土。為了利樂那些還沒有登地的菩薩、二乘行者和異生,如是化身,隨眾生所需,現通說法使眾生各獲利益和安樂

2 五法與三身

第一說:

1) 自性身是法界以及四智中的大圓鏡智所攝。

      事實上,根據《佛地經》,真如即法身。《攝大乘論》說:轉阿賴耶識得自性身,而大圓鏡智品也是由轉去藏識而證得。

2 受用身包含中間二智,即平等性和妙觀察智

      實際上,根據《大乘莊嚴論》所言:「依平等性智,能於淨土隨諸菩薩所樂,示種種佛身。依妙觀察智,能於大集會,現一切自在作用,說法斷疑」《攝大乘論說,轉七轉識,得受用身

3 變化身是成所作智相應心品攝

事實上,《大乘莊嚴論》說「依成所作智,於一切界發起種種無量難思諸變化事。再者,《攝大乘論》「果殊勝,總攝三身」。故知三身全都有智。

      第二說:

1自性身真如所攝

      a、 依《莊嚴論》和《佛地經論》等所言自性身之本性常住

      b、 根據《佛地經論》、《瑜伽論》、《解深密》等說,佛的法身不生不滅(而變化身則有生滅)。

      c 世親在他的《金剛般若波羅蜜經論》中說,法身乃證因之所證,非生因之所生 [故屬無為、無漏法界]

d、 有些論(阿毗達摩、《攝大乘論》《佛地經論》)說,法身是諸佛共有,遍一切法,猶若虛空,無相無為,非色非心。

      反駁意見:論典有言轉藏識而證得自性身。意指由轉第八識中的二障粗重(即粗重種子),以顯示法身。又《攝大乘論》言:「智殊勝中具法身」,之所以這麼說,是因為法身是諸智所依之真實性。雖然自性身無邊功德、真色和真心,但這屬於無為法,故不能色或心稱之

2)自受用身包含四智心品的真實功德,以及大圓鏡智所起常遍色身

3 他受用身平等性智心品所現起的佛身

4 變化身成所作智心品,隨類各式各樣的變化身相

[至於妙観察智,它與最後二身的關係,取決於菩薩起用,看菩薩是要傳法或要以化身造福他人。]

      解釋

1)《大乘莊嚴經論》說,大圓鏡智是佛受用身,而《攝大乘論》說,轉諸轉識得受用身。事實上,轉藏識雖亦得自受用身,但是《攝大乘論》主要在講轉藏識以顯法身,對其得受用身一事,略而不談

大圓鏡智不應被視為法身的要素。如上所《佛地經論》,法身是不生不滅的;《金剛般若波羅蜜經論》說,非生因之所生唯證因之所證,非色非心。大圓鏡智的特徵與上述相違,因此不等同於法身。如大圓鏡智不屬於受用身,那麼它屬於哪種身呢?

2 受用身者,攝佛一切不共的有為真實功德。因此,佛的所有真色真心,與四智心品,都包含在身。

(3)-(4). 事實上,他受用身和變化身,只是度化有情的方便示現,不能說其智性為實。

      雖然《攝大乘論》說,變化身殊勝智所攝。之所以這麼說,是因為變化身似由智現,或由智因此智名,而其性實非是智。

經論說,平等性智能現他受用身,成所作智能現三業化身。但並沒有說,二身就是二智,因此,平等性、成所作二智,都是自受用身攝

      變化身及他受用身雖然沒有真實的心及心所,但是它們卻有化現的心、心所法,因為無上覺者神力不可思議,能夠化現形質法。

      若非如此,久斷煩惱的佛,怎麼能在化身中示現貪、瞋等相?連等覺菩薩尚且不知如來真心,聲聞和傍生又怎麼能知呢?

      《涅槃經》所言,佛變現無量化人, 皆令有心。

      根據《佛地經》,如來的成所作智,化作身、語、意三業

      《解深密經》《瑜伽論》卷78)說,變化身(即佛的意生身)有依他心,因為佛依眾生心,現相分

      雖有經文說,變化力不涉及變化根、心和心所。這說法是針對還沒成佛者說的,而不是講如來的變化力。或者是指變化的色根、心、心所法,並沒有真正的根等作用,所以經文不說為有。

3.三身的不同屬性

      這三身雖都具足無邊功德,但彼此卻有不同之處。

   自性身唯具真正的常樂我淨,沒有任何染污,它是眾善所依,攝無為功德故為永恆,不生不滅),既無色、心和心所等差別相,亦無其用。

      自受用身具有無量妙色、心等的真實功德

至於最後兩個身,即他受用身及變化身,它們唯具有無量似色、似心和心所等化相功德,以利樂眾生

4 三身二利門

      直觀地說,自性身寂靜安樂無為,正自利。從廣義上說自性身亦兼利他,因為它能作增上緣,使眾生得到利樂。再者,自性身受用身及變化身之依止既可自利,也能利他。

      自受用身屬於自利,而他受用及變化身乃為他而現,屬於利他。

5三身及土

1 自性身或法身(真如,無漏法性)依法性土而住。其身土雖然在本質上沒有區別,但是,佛身之相、法性之土,二者性、相有別性是法性,相為佛相

      佛身和法性土,顯然都不是色法(物質或形式)。因此不可說其形量大小。然而,隨著諸法事相的顯現量廣。就像虛空一樣,無處不在。

2自受用身依自土而住 [就是說:身土體,身外無]。淨識(即第八淨識),與大圓鏡智相應,此智相續展現變現純淨佛土,周圓無際,眾寶莊嚴此為菩薩往昔自利無漏純淨佛土的因緣(無漏種)成熟菩薩初成佛,未來際,自受用身常依此純淨佛土而住

      身量與土量的大小相似。佛身的三十二相、八十種好,一一都是無邊無際,因為它是由無限善根所引生

      此身的功德和智慧,皆非色法不可計其形量大小。但是由於自受用身以法身為所依,法身遍一切處,故說自受用身亦遍一切處。同樣地,其功德就像自受用身一樣無處不在。其智慧亦如所證真如,遍一切處

      3他受用身也是依自住。菩薩往昔所修利他事業,顯化無漏純淨佛土其因緣成熟,大慈悲力根據十地菩薩所需平等性智化現淨土。此土或小或大,或或勝,前後,為他受用身之所依住

      他受用身之身量,就像他受用土一樣,大小不定。

4變化身是依變化土而住於往昔所修利他無漏事業因緣成熟,大慈悲力化現淨穢佛土,根據未登地有情的需要,成所作智化現佛土,淨或穢,小或大,時時轉變。

佛的變化身即依此土而住,身量如化大小不定

6. 諸佛與

      自性身與法性土,是一切如來共證。佛佛道同,沒有區別。

      每一尊佛都有自受用身及所依土各各成等正覺,化現身土。一切佛所變身土雖然不同,但形量無邊,不妨礙。

      至於最後兩身,則是隨諸如來所化,有情皈多佛或依一佛,此二有共與不共之

      什麼情況多佛共化諸佛同時於同處各變其身土,這些身土形狀相似,互不障礙,彼此展轉相攝,為增上緣,令所化有情,於識所佛身土,唯知其共,知其別。一佛身,一佛土現神通,說法饒益。

      如果眾生不共,時一處只有一佛為其應化眾生變現身土

   無始以來,佛和眾生之間種性自然相互關聯:或佛合一人;或一佛獨救生。因此,所化的眾生不是依一佛,便是依多佛假如佛與佛不相繫屬,世上便應有多佛久住,每尊佛化,那麼多佛應世又有什麼益處呢?因為一佛就能救度所有眾生。

7.身和土的顯現

      無論身土之淨穢無漏識之所變,就像識之能變俱為善無漏法。

      原因是,身土是純善無漏的因緣所生屬於道諦,而不是集諦

   蘊等為識的相分其性不一定同於能變識,因為蘊、處、界三法,是由不同性質的因緣種子交雜引生

      從有漏識所變現的身和土,與能變識一樣,都是有漏的,原因在於,純從有漏因緣所生,屬於苦諦和集諦,不屬於滅諦和道諦

      識(見分)為善、惡、無記,其相分不一定同樣是善、惡、無記性因為相分和見分可能是三性因緣雜引生

      依此,相分(蘊等)與見分的業性也是有異。若皆無異,那麼五蘊、十二處和十八界就沒有區別了。

§ 6、 唯識義

有說:相分等皆依識而變現,不像識性本身是依他中的實法(圓成實性)。假如相分是真實的,那麼唯識的道理就不成立,因為那樣的話便需承認識和內境皆是實有2

說:

      識的相分,見分等,都是因緣所生的依他起性,就像識本身一樣,因此其性質的虛實,與識本身相似。

      唯識的「唯」 字,是要遣心外的遍計所執,但不遮內境(即不見相二分)。否則真如的存在也會被否定,這是不對的

      然而有問,如果內境如識,皆非虛妄,為什麼僅說唯識,不說唯境呢?

      之所以說唯識而不說唯境:

1 .因為識唯內有,而境通內外,為免眾生內外混淆所以只言唯識

2. 因為愚者迷境而起煩惱沉淪生死,不勤觀心以求出離。所以佛愍眾生,宣唯識,令彼各自觀心,以解脫生死輪迴。但這並不是說內境外境完全不存在。

3.或者依安慧的論述,不相分,而是以識本身為主內境(見分等)都是以識的本身(自證分)為性。由於熏習力,似有多分由識生起。從另一方面來說真如是識的實性。因此,識外無別法。此處的“識”一字包含與心相應的心所。

      本論由三部分組成:第1-2a頌、第2b-2526-30頌,由之確立唯識的教義,故本論稱為《成唯識論》

      此論《淨唯識》,因為它是對唯識義作極明淨的闡述 [正如須彌山及其眾寶,待正午的陽,才能閃耀全輝。更如寶石必得切磋磨瑩以出光,唯識義必教理琢磨以顯其淨。……窺基大師]

      本論是對《唯識三十頌》的解釋,亦名唯識三十,因為在三十頌中,顯揚唯識理,圓滿表達其義,不多一點,不少一點

聖教及正理的基礎上,對唯識性相已做完整闡述。願以此造論功德,生,願一切眾生皆共速無上覺。

 

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1這裡使用的“土”是“佛土”或“世界”的意思,例如彌陀淨土。

2見第八卷“三性”一節。

 

尚德按:

《成唯識論》十卷,最後的結論終於說到什麼是佛。佛,在常樂我淨的常寂光土中。

問,什麼是常樂我淨?

常:永恆,超越時空。

樂,絕對超越煩惱。

我淨,在一切中感應道交,又超越一切。

   佛叫做法、報、化三身的成就。佛是法身,報是受用身,化是應化身。

說「法身無相,報身圓滿,化身億萬」,有問題。說佛是法身部分成立。理由:

   「阿陀那識甚深細一切種子如瀑流。」

阿陀那識便是法身也。 釋迦牟尼佛只不過是成了佛的佛身應知:

凡存在即法身。

   所以釋迦牟尼佛在靈山會上傳法便說:

「法本法無法,無法法亦法,今付無法時,法法何曾法。」

   這是連法身都徹底否定。如此才有禪門說的:

「言語道斷,心行處滅,不立文字,教外別傳。」

   這幾句話的意義,也是為《華嚴經》做背書的。

《華嚴經》說:

「諸法無體。」

   問題是:常常有人談到佛法的法身問題,過不了關,便說:法身是體。誰說的?

哲學不談法報化,卻談體相用。德國大哲學家康德(Immanuel Kant17241804)說:「人類的知識是無從了解形而上的體的。」

   尚德的認知是:

形而上的體,就是佛法講的「是諸法空相。」《金剛經》說得好:「凡所有相,皆是虛妄,若見諸相非相,則見如來。」「非相」即虛妄,也就是《金剛經》所說的「一切有為法,如夢幻泡影。」 有為法者,虛妄也。那無為法呢?能超越有為法,才是無為法。

現在又有一個大問題,學佛是要跟釋迦牟尼佛學,祂究竟是怎樣成佛的?

祂:

1歷劫修行,經三大阿僧祇劫。

2超越煩惱障所知障。

3遮掉能覺與所覺。

4無念、不取。

5全修三十七菩提道品,修成後又超越三十七菩提道品。

   釋迦牟尼佛在許多大乘經典,對如何成佛做了許許多多的解釋。

唯識要轉識成智。

印心的《楞伽》則說:智不得有無,一切如夢幻,而興大悲心。更強調:

「心意識都要超越」,

且說:「佛亦為幻」。

   悟道的《楞嚴經》一開始便否定了阿難和摩登伽女的荷爾蒙系統。這和基督教亞當夏娃的原罪,道理是一樣的。所以聖經說,亞當夏娃犯了罪。在《華嚴經》四聖諦品,文殊菩薩說:「眾生是罪」。既然有罪,眾生想要得救,就一定要懺悔、悔改,所以六祖在《六祖壇經》中強調「人要懺悔。」

   問題來了,究竟如何懺悔呢?

   普賢菩薩有十大願力,阿彌陀佛有四十八大願。初發心即成正等正覺,所以金剛經說:「善男子,善女人,發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心,應如是住,如是降伏其心。」

發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心,就是發要成佛的心,成無上正等正覺。為什麼初發心即成無上正等正覺?

願力生不可思議境界。

一旦發心就徹底丟掉自己的貪瞋癡。超越自己本來的情鉤意鎖欲鏈,所以《楞嚴經》講,徹底丟掉和放下自己的貪嗔癡,便立即得到清淨自在與解脫。

   《成唯識論》把人的問題說得非常細緻。就是要人轉八識成四智。生因識有,滅從色除,此乃歷劫修行的成果,尚德心嚮往之。

   方東美老師說:「不是識,是智。」

   憨山大師說:「不悟為識,悟者為智。」

   妙的是《大般若經》說:「我說般若波羅蜜,即非般若波羅蜜,是名般若波羅蜜。」

這也就是說:雖有智,仍要捨也。

 

附:

這次《成唯識論》說,唯識並不是只說心而不說外境的道理如下:

有問,如果內境如識,皆非虛妄,為什麼僅說唯識,不說唯境呢?

   之所以說唯識而不說唯境:

1 .因為識唯內有,而境通內外,為免眾生內外混淆所以只言唯識

2. 因為愚者迷境而起煩惱沉淪生死,不知勤觀心以求出離。所以佛愍眾生,宣唯識義,令彼各自觀心,以解脫生死輪迴。但這並不是說內境如外境完全不存在。

   也就是說,佛法既不是唯心論,也不是唯物論,更不是心物合一論,它一切都要超越。這就是為什麼《楞嚴經》說「語言非實」。而文殊菩薩在《維摩詰經》也說:「無語是真不二法門。」

一切如夢如幻,《圓覺經》一開始說得好:「知幻即離,不作方便,離幻即覺,亦無次第。」

能如此,便會感應到為什麼《法華經》說地下出無數佛。

眾生不僅是本來在自性清淨佛中,也實在可以每分每秒倒在諸佛菩薩的懷中而領受至樂也。

祝福!祝福!

千萬祝福!

 

 

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祝福與懷念

張尚德

各位道友:

每逢佳節倍思親,尚德心懷故園,在達摩書院,借秋月傳遞對諸位的關懷與掛念。

我憶念起寒山的詩:

吾心似秋月,

寒潭清皎潔,

無物可比倫,

教我如何說!

各位好好參一參:月光菩薩的清光垂地,寒潭的無比清淨。

無物可比倫,這就只好借文殊大士所說的,無語是不二法門。尚德在無語中,懷念各位,千萬千萬的祝福各位。

 

二零二一年九月十九日

於台灣達摩書院

 

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道  友

張尚德

各位道友:

現在流行病讓人煩悶,好好熟念《心經》。

總括三句話如下:

1 心無罣礙(昨天那樣,今天如此,明天又如何?生生世世在那裡掛念個什麼?天下本無事,庸人自擾之而已。)

2 得無所得(在真正認識上,是諸法空相。一切成住壞空,又得個什麼?)

3 無有恐怖,遠離顛倒夢想(努力歸到自己本來有的寧靜。真正的寧靜,就是不生不滅,不垢不淨,不增不減。)

 祝福大家,好好背熟《心經》,常常念上面總括三句,生活在裡面,就OK了。

 

二零二一年六月二十二日

於台灣達摩書院

 

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永遠懷念

張尚德

各位道友:

  物華天寶,人傑地靈,湘潭自唐朝以來,歷代出了四十位以上的大禪師。

  大家每年五一聚在道南書院「共品禪味」,真是有說不完的話。

  當六根落在六塵時,不起執著,全力歸到自己本來有的平靜。

  無盡的懷念大家!希望我們很快能再相聚一堂。

  祝福!千萬祝福!

 

 

尚德 於台灣達摩書院

二零二一年五月二日

 

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什麼是達摩禪?

張尚德

只要看《指月錄》談達摩的那一章,就知道什麼是達摩禪。其主要理論基礎,在《楞伽經》。

入禪的初步,絕對是要證到人無我和法無我的空性,

也就是證到世親菩薩所說的:

「因假說我法,有種種相轉。」

亦即證到四大本空,五蘊為幻。

實際的方法是:

外息諸緣,

內心無喘,

心如牆壁,

可以入道。

達摩大師之所以為禪門西天二十八祖,東土初祖,祂豈止是在少林寺面壁九年,而是歷劫修行,好多好多世信佛、禮佛、供養億萬佛,才成其為達摩禪的。

佛法的總結是《華嚴經》。善財童子五十三參所遇到的善知識,無一不是圓滿成就六波羅蜜(布施、持戒、忍辱、精進、禪定、智慧)而歷劫修行者。

尚德學達摩禪,南老師賜匾,在台灣成立達摩書院,雖任重道遠,卻事事蹉跎,慚愧無已。

 

二零二零年十一月三日

於台灣達摩書院

 

附:《指月錄》達摩祖師章

    初祖菩提達摩大師者。南天竺國香至王第三子也。姓剎帝利。本名菩提多羅。後於般若多羅尊者得法。尊者謂曰。汝於諸法已得通量。達摩者通大之義也。宜名達摩。因改今名。祖恭稟教義。服勤四十年。迨尊者順世。遂演化本國。時有二師。一名佛大先。二名佛大勝多。本與祖同學。佛陀䟦陀小乘禪觀。佛大先既遇般若[1]波羅尊者。捨小趣大。與祖竝化。時號為二甘露門矣。而佛大勝多。更分徒而為六宗。第一有相宗。第二無相宗。第三定慧宗。第四戒行宗。第五無得宗。第六寂靜宗。各封己解。別展化源。祖喟然歎曰。彼之一師已陷牛跡。況復支離而分六宗。我若不除。永纏邪見。言已微現神力。至有相宗所問曰。一切諸法何名實相。彼眾中有一尊長薩婆羅。答曰。於諸相中不互諸相。是名實相。祖曰。一切諸相而不互者。若名實相。當何定耶。彼曰。於諸相中實無有定。若定諸相。何名為實。祖曰。諸相不定。便名實相。汝今不定。當何得之。彼曰。我言不定。不說諸相。當說諸相。其義亦然。祖曰。汝言不定。當為實相。定不定故。即非實相。彼曰。定既不定。即非實相。知我非故。不定不變。祖曰。汝今不變。何名實相。已變已往。其義亦然。彼曰。不變當在。在不在故。故變實相。以定其義。祖曰。實相不變。變即非實。於有無中。何名實相。薩婆羅心知聖師懸解潛達。即以手指虗空曰。此是世間有相。亦能空故。當我此身得似此否。祖曰。若解實相。即見非相。若了非相。其色亦然。當於色中不失色體。於非相中不礙有故。若能是解。此名實相。彼眾聞已。心意朗然。欽禮信受。祖瞥然匿跡。至無相宗所而問曰。汝言無相。當何證之。彼眾中有波羅提者。答曰。我明無相。心不現故。祖曰。汝心不現。當何明之。彼曰。我明無相。心不取捨。當於明時。亦無當者。祖曰。於諸有無。心不取捨。又無當者。諸明無故。彼曰。入佛三昧。尚無所得。何況無相而欲知之。祖曰。相既不知。誰云有無。尚無所得。何名三昧。彼曰。我說不證。證無所證。非三昧故。我說三昧。祖曰。非三昧者。何當名之。汝既不證。非證何證。波羅提聞祖辨析。即悟本心。禮謝於祖。懺悔往謬。祖記曰。汝當得果。不久證之。此國有魔。非久降之。言已忽然不現。至定慧宗所問曰。汝學定慧。為一為二。彼眾中有婆蘭陀者。答曰。我此定慧。非一非二。祖曰。既非一二。何名定慧。彼曰。在定非定。處慧非慧。一即非一。二亦不二。祖曰。當一不一。當二不二。既非定慧。約何定慧。彼曰。不一不二。定慧能知。非定非慧。亦復然矣。祖曰。慧非定故。然何知哉。不一不二。誰定誰慧。婆蘭陀聞之。疑心氷釋。至第四戒行宗所問曰。何者名戒。云何名行。當此戒行為一為二。彼眾中有一賢者。答曰。一二二一。皆彼所生。依教無染。此名戒行。祖曰。汝言依教。即是有染。一二俱破何言依教。此二違背。不及於行。內外非明。何名為戒。彼曰。我有內外。彼已知竟。既得通達。便是戒行。若說違背。俱是俱非。言及清淨。即戒即行。祖曰。俱是俱非。何言清淨。既得通故。何談內外。賢者聞之即自慚服。至無得宗所問曰。汝云無得。無得何得。既無所得。亦無得得。彼眾中有寶靜者。答曰。我說無得。非無得得。當說得得。無得是得。祖曰。得既不得。得亦非得。既云得得。得得何得。彼曰見得非得。非得是得。若見不得。名為得得。祖曰。得既非得。得得無得。既無所得。當何得得。寶靜聞之頓除疑網。至寂靜宗所問曰。何名寂靜。於此法中誰靜誰寂。彼眾中有尊者答曰。此心不動。是名為寂。於法無染。名之為靜。祖曰。本心不寂。要假寂靜。本來寂故。何用寂靜。彼曰。諸法本空。以空空故。於彼空空。故名寂靜。祖曰。空空已空。諸法亦爾。寂靜無相。何靜何寂。彼尊者聞師指誨。豁然開悟。於是六眾咸誓歸依。化被南天。聲馳五印。經六十載。度無量眾。後值異見王欲毀佛法。王故祖之姪也。祖憫之欲開其蒙。而六眾亦各念。佛法有難。師將何所匡濟。祖遙知眾意。彈指應之。六眾悉聞云。此我師信響也。皆至祖所。祖曰。一翳蔽空。孰為翦之。前無相宗宗勝欲行。祖曰。汝雖辯慧。道力未全。且與王無緣。勝辭祖。竟至王所。廣陳法要。王曰。汝今所解。其法何在。宗勝曰。如王治化。當合其道。王所有道。其道何在。王曰。我所有道。將除邪法。汝所有法。將伏何人。祖不起於座。懸知宗勝義墮。召波羅提曰。宗勝不稟吾語。與王論屈。汝急往救。波羅提曰。願假神力。言訖雲起足下。遂乘以見王。王正問宗勝。忽見愕然。忘其所問。而顧波羅提曰。乘空來者是正是邪。提曰。我非邪正。而來正邪。王心若正。我無邪正。王雖驚異。而驕慢方熾。即擯宗勝令出。波羅提曰。王既有道。何擯沙門。我雖無解。願王致問。王怒而問曰。何者是佛。提曰。見性是佛。王曰。師見性否。提曰。我見佛性。王曰。性在何處。提曰。性在作用。王曰。是何作用。我今不見。提曰。今現作用。王自不見。王曰。於我有否。提曰。王若作用。無有不是。王若不用。體亦難見。王曰。若當用時。幾處出現。提曰。若出現時。當有其八。王曰。其八出現。當為我說。波羅提即說。偈曰。在胎為身。處世為人。在眼曰見。在耳曰聞。在鼻辨香。在口談論。在手執捉。在足運奔。徧現俱該沙界。收攝在一微塵。識者知是佛性。不識喚作精魂。王聞偈已。心即開悟。悔謝前非。咨詢法要。王復問波羅提。師承為誰。提曰。大王之叔菩提達摩也。王聞遽勑近臣。迎祖至王宮。祖為王懺悔往非。王聞泣謝。隨詔宗勝歸國。近臣曰。宗勝被謫時。已捐軀投崖矣。祖曰。勝尚在。召之當至。初勝受擯。耻不能正王。遂投身危崖。俄有神人。以手捧承。置於巖上。勝曰。我忝沙門。當與正法為主。不能抑絕王非。是以捐身。自責。神何佑助。願示所以。於是神人乃說偈曰。師壽於百歲。八十而造非。為近至尊故。熏修而入道。雖具少智慧。而多有彼我。所見諸賢等。未甞生珍敬。二十年功德。其心未恬靜。聰明輕慢故。而獲至於此。得王不敬者。常感果如是。自今不疎怠。不久成奇智。諸聖悉存心。如來亦復爾。勝聞偈欣然。遂宴坐巖間。至是王遣使山中召勝。祖謂王曰。知勝來乎。王曰未知。祖曰。再命乃來耳。使者至山。而勝辭。果再命乃至 祖念東震旦國。佛記後五百歲。般若智燈運光於彼。遂囑弟子不若蜜多羅。住天竺傳法。而躬至震旦。乃辭祖塔。別學侶。且謂王曰。勤修白業。吾去一九即回。祖泛重溟。凡三周寒暑。達於南海。實梁普通七年庚子歲。九月二十一日也。廣州刺史蕭昂。具禮迎供。表聞武帝。帝遣使齋詔迎請。以十月一日至金陵。帝問曰。朕即位以來。造寺寫經度僧。不可勝紀。有何功德。祖曰。竝無功德。帝曰。何以無功德。祖曰。此但人天小果有漏之因。如影隨形。雖有非實。帝曰。如何是真功德。祖曰。淨智妙圓。體自空寂。如是功德不以世求。帝又問。如何是聖諦第一義。祖曰。廓然無聖。帝曰。對朕者誰。祖曰不識。帝不悟。

祖知機不契。是月十九日。潛回江北。十一月二十三日。屆洛陽。寓止嵩山少林寺。面壁而坐。終日默然。人莫之測。謂之壁觀婆羅門。有僧神光。久居伊洛。博覽群籍。善談玄理。每歎曰。孔老之教。禮術風規。莊易之書。未盡妙理。近聞達摩大士。住止少林。至人不遙。當造玄境。遂詣祖參承。祖常端坐面壁。莫聞誨勵。光自惟曰。昔人求道。敲骨取髓。刺血濟饑。布髮掩泥。投崖飼虎。古尚若此。我又何人。值大雪。光夜侍立。遲明積雪過膝。立愈恭。祖顧而憫之。問曰。汝久立雪中。當求何事。光悲淚曰。惟願和尚慈悲。開甘露門。廣度群品。祖曰。諸佛無上妙道。曠劫精勤。難行能行。非忍而忍。豈以小德小智輕心慢心。欲冀真乘。徒勞勤苦。光聞祖誨勵。潛取利刀。自斷左臂。置於祖前。祖知是法器。乃曰。諸佛最初求道。為法忘形。汝今斷臂吾前。求亦可在。祖遂因與易名曰慧可。乃曰。諸佛法印即得聞乎。祖曰。諸佛法印。匪從人得。可曰。我心未寧。乞師與安。祖曰。將心來與汝安可良久曰。覔心了不可得。祖曰。我與汝安心竟。

越九年。欲返天竺。命門人曰。時將至矣。汝等盍言所得乎。有道副對曰。如我所見。不執文字。不離文字。而為道用。祖曰。汝得吾皮。尼總持曰。我今所解。如慶喜見阿閦佛國。一見更不再見。祖曰。汝得吾肉。道育曰。四大本空。五陰非有。而我見處。無一法可得。祖曰。汝得吾骨。最後慧可禮拜依位而立。祖曰。汝得吾髓。乃顧慧可而告之曰。昔如來以正法眼。付迦葉大士。展轉囑累而至於我。我今付汝。汝當護持。并授汝袈裟以為法信。各有所表。宜可知矣。可曰。請師指陳。祖曰。內傳法印以契證心。外付袈裟以定宗旨。後代澆薄。疑慮競生。云吾西天之人。言汝此方之子。馮何得法。以何證之。汝今受此衣法。却後難生。但出此衣并吾法偈。用以表明。其化無礙。至吾滅後二百年。衣止不傳。法周沙界。明道者多。行道者少。說理者多。通理者少。潛符密證千萬有餘。汝當闡揚。勿輕未悟。一念回機。便同本得。聽吾偈曰。吾本來茲土。傳法救迷情。一花開五葉。結果自然成。祖又曰。吾有楞伽經四卷。亦用付汝。即是如來心地要門。令諸眾生開示悟入。吾自到此。凡五度中毒。我甞自出而試之置石。石裂。緣吾本離南印。來此東土。見赤縣神州。有大乘氣象。遂踰海越漠。為法求人。際會未諧。如愚若訥。今得汝傳授。吾意已終。言已。乃與徒眾。往禹門千聖寺。止三日。有期城太守楊衒之。早慕佛乘。問祖曰。西天五印師承為祖。其道如何。祖曰。明佛心宗。行解相應。名之曰祖。又問。此外如何。祖曰。須明他心。知其今古。不厭有無。於法無取。不賢不愚。無迷無悟。若能是解。故稱為祖。又曰。弟子歸心三寶。亦有年矣。而智慧昏蒙。尚迷真理。適聽師言。罔知攸措。願師慈悲開示宗旨。祖知懇到。即說偈曰。亦不覩惡而生嫌。亦不觀善而勤措。亦不捨智而近愚。亦不拋迷而就悟。達大道兮過量。通佛心兮出度。不與凡聖同躔。超然名之曰祖。衒之聞偈。悲喜交并。曰願師久住世間。化導群有。祖曰。吾即逝矣。不可久留。根性萬差。多逢愚難。衒之曰。未審何人。弟子為師除得否。祖曰。吾以傳佛秘密。利益迷塗。害彼自安。必無此理。衒之曰。師若不言。何表通變觀照之力。祖不獲已。乃為讖曰。江槎分玉浪。管炬開金鎖。五口相共行。九十無彼。我。衒之莫測。禮辭而去。時魏氏奉釋。禪雋如林。光統律師流支三藏者。僧中鸞鳳。而議多與祖相違。祖玄風所被。有識咸歸。彼徒生嫉。數加毒藥。莫能中傷。至第六度。以化緣既畢。遂端居而逝。塟熊耳山。起塔定林寺。其年魏使宋雲。[-+]嶺回。見祖手携隻履翩翩而逝。雲問師何往。祖曰。西天去。雲歸具說其事。及門人啟壙。棺空惟隻履存焉。詔取遺履少林寺供養。至唐開元十五年丁卯。為信道者竊在五臺。今不知所在。

 

 

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給道友的話

張尚德

各位道友:

每逢佳節倍思親,真的非常懷念、掛念、想念你們。

流行病久了,俺是逺望故鄉不可得,真是長安不見使人愁也!這些年來,我非常感謝有緣分在湘潭成立禪門文化的道南書院。

湘潭歷代出現過四十位以上的大禪師,六祖傳人懷讓就在湘潭建立過白雲寺,近代的虛雲和八指頭陀都是湘潭和全國的佛門龍象,尚徳的認識是如果禪門文化鼎盛,個人、家庭、團體、社會、國家和天下一定能歸到人性本來的善良、高貴、平靜與安定。我真的在無盡的懷念中,有說不完的話。

佛法要超越一切,希望你們真能離苦得樂。禪門文化最後是歸到重重無盡、無盡重重的華嚴。祝福各位好好和《華嚴經》所說的諸神與諸佛同在!靜心的體會諸佛菩薩隨時隨地都在發光中,加持我們;深深地在智慧與行動上深化自己,與諸佛菩薩的慈悲喜捨和文殊菩薩的智慧、以及普賢菩薩的行願相應。

除了相信佛與菩薩外也要相信神,華嚴經不僅是歸到佛也是歸到神的。孟子説:「聖而為神」,釋迦牟尼佛一再説「內證聖智即為佛」,現在世亂大家不要懼怕。我忽然想起了辜汪會談辜振甫先生的公子前台灣水泥公司董事長,成允道友,曾在湘潭道南書院三更半夜向我說:「中國是永遠有希望的,因為有儒釋道三家。」

儒家成聖,隨心所欲不逾矩。

道家齊物,道通為一而逍遙遊。

佛家在法界緣起中,四無量心而遊戲三昧。

諸位道友,我們一起放下自己不應該有的自私與愚昧,來為中華民族的復興和人類的和平努力、奉獻到底。

我們都生活在同一個地球和宇宙中,往聖先賢都在強調,人類要相親相愛。讓我們在心靈深處中,把真正的愛掏出來,將真愛化為行動,讓你我他都能離苦得樂,實現〈禮運大同篇〉所說的:

大道之行也

天下為公。

祝福!祝福!千萬祝福!

 

尚德 於台灣達摩書院

二零二零年十月一日

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超越悠悠

張尚德

            陳子昂說:

 

前不見古人,

後不見來者。

念天地之悠悠,

獨愴然而淚下。

這種說法未必為對。

天地與我並生,萬物與我為一,一切一切本來統一在一起。

所以《金剛經》說:

「一合相」。

看通了,看透了,無法無我了,一切的悠悠,也不悠悠。活著就成為一種超越與享受。本來悠悠,也不悠悠。

重要的是:

要超越悠悠

 

尚德 於台灣達摩書院

二零二零年五月十三日