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唯識新引

《成唯識論》新解 

唯識學會創辦人張尚德述

   達摩書院副院長黃高証

254

超越十二因緣

《成唯識論》卷八

第二章 十二有支

然十二支略攝為四。

一能引支。謂無明行。能引識等五果種故。

此中無明。唯取能發正感後世善惡業者。

即彼所發乃名為行。

由此一切順現受業別助當業皆非行支。

二所引支。謂本識內親生當來異熟果攝識等五種。是前二支所引發故。

此中識種。謂本識因。除後三因餘因皆是名色種攝。後之三因如名次第即後三種。

或名色種總攝五因。於中隨勝立餘四種。六處與識總別亦然。

(述記:於中隨勝立餘四種。執持識勝。生識處勝。觸境觸勝。領納受勝。故別立四。由此六處名為總。攝六識界故。識支是別。意界攝故。)

釋妨難

集論說識亦是能引。識中業種名識支故。異熟識種名色攝故。

經說識支通能所引。業種識種俱名識故。

(述記:緣起經上卷說此識支通能所引。))

識是名色依。非名色攝故。

識等五種由業熏發雖實同時。而依主伴,總別,勝劣,因果,相異。故諸聖教假說前後。

(述記:謂本識為主。異熟主故。餘四為伴。非主異熟助伴生故。就彼四中。名色是總。體性寬故。餘三是別。義用狹故。就後三中。六處是勝。受等依故。餘二是劣。依處生故。就後二中。觸是因勝。能生受故。受是果體。觸所生故。由此五支有如是等就各相異故。諸聖教假說前後。體實同時。)

或依當來現起分位有次第故說有前後。

由斯識等亦說現行。因時定無現行義故。

復由此說生引同時。潤未潤時必不俱故。

三能生支。謂愛取有。近生當來生老死故。

謂緣迷內異熟果愚發正能招後有諸業為緣。引發親生當來生老死位五果種已。

復依迷外增上果愚緣境界受發起貪愛。緣愛復生欲等四取。

(述記:四取者。謂欲取.見取.戒取.我語取。)

愛取合潤。能引業種及所引因轉名為有。俱能近有後有果故。

有處唯說業種名有。此能正感異熟果故。

(述記:如瑜伽第十說。)

復有唯說五種名有。親生當來識等種故。

四所生支。謂生老死。是愛取有近所生故。

謂從中有至本有中未衰變來皆生支攝。諸衰變位總名為老。身壞命終乃名為死。

(述記:受內異熟時由不了內世俗苦故起非福行。苦相麁顯易可了知名世俗苦。不能了內勝義苦故起福.不動。人.天苦果相非麁顯。勝者知苦名勝義苦。為緣引發名言五種已。雖迷二苦不同。總是迷內起業。後受境界時。由不能了所知境故。起染受時愛等增長。合前六種轉名為有。如水潤種。種近果生。)

 

英譯(韋達)

§ II. THE TWELVE ANGAS

Twelve Branches or Links in the Chain of Existence

 

 The twelve Angas or 'links' fall under four categories.1

(I) 'Angas that project' (Aksepaka)

These Angas refer to Avidya (ignorance) and the Samskaras (predispositions) which project the Bijas of the five fruits, namely, consciousness (Vijnana), names and forms (Namarupa), the six sense-organs (Sadayatana), contact (Sparsa), and sensation (Vedana).

By Avidyanga (ignorance as the first link in the chain of causation) is meant only the Avidya which gives rise to good and bad deeds which directly bring about reincarnation.

Predispositions which have their origin in this Avidya are the Samskaras, i.e., the Samskaranga (predisposition link).

It follows from this that neither those deeds which produce a part of the particular recompense of this life, nor those auxiliary and complementary deeds which produce a part of the particular recompense of the life or lives to come, constitute part of this Samskaranga.

(2) Angas that are projected (Aksipta)

These Angas refer to the five kinds of Bijas found in the Mulavijnana which, in contradistinction to the Bijas which issue from deeds (kamabija), immediately engender five elements of the future existence (the future Vipakaphala), namely, consciousness, names and forms, the sense-organs, contact, and sensation. These Bijas are the five Angas called Aksipta, (i.e., Angas that are projected), because they are projected by the Angas of Avidya and Samskaras.

We have therefore: (1) consciousness-bijas, that is to say, the causes of Mulavijnana; (2) Bijas of names and forms, i.e., the causes of the four non-material Skandhas and the Rupaskandhas (3) Bijas of sense-organs, i.e., the causes of sense-organs; (4) contact-bijas, i.e., the causes of contacts; (5) sensation-bijas, i.e., the causes of sensations.

In other words, the Name-form-bijas include, broadly speaking, the Bijas of the five causes (consciousness, name-form, etc.); and the four other classes of Bijas are established separately to mark out Bijas of specially great importance: [Mulavijnana Bijas that hold and carry, Bijas of the sense-organs that engender sense-awareness, of touch that touches objects and of sensation that feels objects.] Similarly, the six sense-organs, in a general way include the six consciousness-Dhatus, while the 'consciousness Angas’, in a special way, is the Manodhatu.

Five Remarks

1.     According to the Abhidharmasamuccaya, consciousness must also be listed among the projecting Angas, (aksepakas), partly because the Karmabijas in consciousness are given the name of vijnananga (consciousness Angas), and partly because the Vipakavijnana Bijas are comprised in Namarupa (name and form).

2.     According to the Sutra (Pratityasamutpadasutra), the vijnananga is simultaneously projecting and projected, because the Karmabijas and the Vijnanabijas are both designated by the term ‘Vijnana’.

Furthermore, the explanation of the Abhidharma is inadmissible, because Vijnana is the supporting basis for Namarupa, not comprised in Namarupa.

3.     Although the creation and perfuming by the various deeds of the Bijas of  Vijnana-Namarupa-Sadayatana-Sparsa-Vedana - which are the Angas of this name - are simultaneous, yet the sacred texts teach, incorrectly, that they are successive on account of the difference of their characteristics: Vijnana is the lord (eighth consciousness), the four other Angas are companions ; Namarupa is general, the last three Angas are particular; Sadayatana is superior, Sparsa and Vedana are inferior; Sparsa is cause and Vedana is effect.

Alternatively, the Angas are enumerated as successive dharmas, despite the fact that they arc Bijas and simultaneous, because, later on, in the state of actual manifestation, when the Bija produces fruit, there is succession between actual Vijnana, actual Namarupa, etc.

4.     It is by accepting this last point of view that the texts (Dasabhumi, Abhidharma, Pratityasamutpadasutra) consider the five Angas, from Vijnana to Vedana, as actualities: during the period when they are in the state of cause (Bija), they are definitely not actualities.

5.     Furthermore, it is by accepting this point of view that the Pratityasamutpadasutra indicates that projection (aksepa) and generation (janana) are simultaneous, for the time when the Bija is moistened and that at which it is not are not simultaneous. 2

(3) Angas that engender (Janaka).

By this are meant the three Angas, Trsna (craving-thirst, desire), Upadana (grasping), and Bhava (being, existence), because they directly engender future birth, old age and death, i.e., future existence.

As a result of the error and delusion respecting the fruit of retribution (the internal Mulavijnana, etc.), there are produced the deeds which will create, in the capacity of Adhipatipratyaya, the future existence, and there are projected the Bijas of the five Angas (Vijnana, etc.) which will produce, in the capacity of Hetupratyaya, ‘Birth-Old-Age-Deach' of the future existence.

Then, in consequence of the error and delusion respecting external objects (which are Adhipatiphala) and by the force of the sensation of external objects, Trsna or craving-thrist is produced, and, in consequence of Trsna, there are produced the four graspings or clingings (Upadanas), namely, clinging to desire (Kamopadana), clinging to ideas arising from the conception of Atman (Atmavadopadana), clinging to erroneous views (drstyupadana), and clinging to false moral precepts (silavratopadana).

When reunited, Trsna and Upadana 'moisten’, on the one hand, the Bijas deriving from deeds which are aksepaka, and, on the other, the Bijas of the five Angas, Vijnana, etc., which are aksipta. Hence these six categories of Bijas take the name of Bhava (existence), because they are capable of directly producing a future Bhava, a future existence.3

According to one text (Yogasastra, 10), only the Bijas derived from deeds are given the name of Bhava, because they are capable of producing directly the fruit of retribution.

According to another text, the name of Bhava must be reserved for the Bijas of the five Angas, consciousness, etc., because these Bijas immediately engender future consciousness, etc.

(4) Angas that are engendered (Janya).

By this are meant Birth-Old-Age-Death, Jati-jaramarana, because they are directly engendered by the Angas of Thirst-Grasping-Existence (Trsna-Upadana-Bhava).

Birth extends from the commencement of the intermediate existence (antarabhava) up to the fundamental existence (Mulabhava, i.e., earthly life) as long as there is no decay. Old age comprises all the stages of decay. Death is the deterioration of the body and the end of life.

 

 

1 The Twelve Angas (Dvadasangas) are also known as the Twelve Nidanas. They are the twelve links in the chain of causation: (1) Avidya, ignorance, or unenlightenment; (2) Samskara, activity, or predisposition; (3) Vijnana, consciousness ; (4) Namarupa, name and form; (5) Sadayatana, the six sense-organs, i.e., eye, car, nose, tongue, body, and mind; (6) Sparsa, contact, couch; (7) Vedana, sensation, feeling; (8) Trsna, craving-thirst, desire; (9) Upadana, laying hold of, grasping; (10) Bhava, being, existence; (11) Jati, birth; (12) Jaramarana, old age and death. The ‘classical formula’ reads:’By reason of ignorance, predispositions; by reason of predispositions, consciousness’, etc..

 

2 According to the Sutras, the Bija can remain 80,000 Kalpas without giving birth, and in order to give birth it must be moistened by Trsna (thirst, desire or craving). At the moment when it is moistened, an actual dharma is engendered and a future dharma is projected.

 

3 K’uei Chi - When one experiences the internal Vipaka, by reason of the ignorance of the internal samvrtidukkha (mundane suffering), one produces non-meritorious deeds. This dukkha, the character of which is crude and easy to understand, is named samvrtidukkha. When one is incapable of understanding the internal paramarthadukkha (supramundane suffering), one produces meritorious and non-exciting deeds. The nature of the dukkha of men and gods is not crude. The paramas, i.e., men of sterling excellence, understand this dukkha. Hence the name of paramarthadukkha.

Subsequently, when one experiences objects, in view of the inability to understand their nature, one produces a defiled sensation; Trsna then increases.

In reality, the delusion respecting the internal mundane suffering also moistens birth. The delusion respecting the external objects also produces deeds.

中譯(黃高証)

第二章 十二有支

存在相續的十二分支或十二因緣

十二有支或十二因緣分為四類。1

1)能引支

 能引支指的是無明(愚癡)和行(勢),它們能夠引生識、名色、六處、觸、受等五果的種子。

 所謂無明(即愚癡,是因果相續的最初環節),專指能夠親引正感來世之善惡總業者。

以無明為本,引發之勢即名為行,也就是行支(勢支)。

  因此,無論是順受現今諸業以感別報,或助發未來諸業以引別報,兩者都不是行支所攝。

2 所引支

所引支是指根本識所攝五類種子,即:識、名色、六處、觸、受,乃親生當來異熟果之五項要素,彼與業種有別。這五支的種子被稱為所引支,因為它們是由無明和行二支所引發的。

  是故有此五因種子:(1)識種,也就是根本識的因;(2)名色種,即色蘊與非色四蘊(受、想、行、識)的因;(3)六處種,即感覺器官之因;(4)觸種,即接觸之因;(5)受種,即感受之因。

或有以名色種子統括識、名色等五因種子;其餘四類種子則隨其所勝而分別安立: [根本識種子以執持為勝,六處種子以感官覺知為勝,觸種子以觸境為勝,受種子以納境為勝。] 同樣地,六處支亦可總括六識界,而「識支」有時別指意界。

五種評論

1. 根據《阿毗達摩集論》的說法,識必屬於能引支,原因或有以識中的業種說名為「識支」,或有因異熟識種為「名色」所攝。

2. 根據《緣起經》,識支同時通於能引和所引支,因為業種和識種皆名為「識」。

 再者,阿毗達摩的解釋並不可取,因為識應是名色的所依,而非名色所攝。

3.雖然識、名色、六處、觸、受等五種子,是同時由業所熏發而生,但聖典卻依其不同特性,假說它們是前後相續的:識(第八識)是主,其他四支為伴;名色是總名,後三支是別名;六處勢勝,觸和受勢劣;觸是因,受是果。

 五支雖立前後次第,其種子實為同時俱起。根據當來現起分位,在種子生現果時,便有了識現行與名色現行等的相續存在。

4. 依照前一說法,聖教(《十地經論》、阿毗達摩、《緣起經》等)也把識至受等五支說為現行。然彼在最初因位(種子)時,定無現行。

5. 此外,由上可知,《緣起經》指出,所引和所生之果是同時俱有的,但已潤種和未潤種卻非同時熏生。2

3 能生支

  能生支就是愛、取、有三支,因為它們直接近生當來的生、老和死,即能生未來的存在。

  由於對異熟果(內在根本識等)的不覺和錯解,招致後續業行。復以此諸業行作為增上緣,親生當來之生、老死位的識等五果因緣種子。

  然後,由於對外境(增上果)的迷失和錯解,以外境索引受為緣,發起貪愛(或渴求)。並以愛為緣,復生起四取,即欲取、見取、戒取、我語取等。

  在愛、取和合的滋潤下,能引生業種,以及所引支的識等五支種子。因此,這六潤種隨之轉名為「有」(存在),因為它們直接能生近有及後有果。3

  根據《瑜伽論》卷10,只有業所生種,才稱為「有」,因為它們能夠直接正感異熟果。

另有文獻唯獨以識、名色、六入、觸、受五支種子,名之為「有」,因為這些種子能夠親生未來的識等支。 

4 所生支

  所生支就是生及老死,因為它們是愛、取、有支的直接所生果。

  「生」包括「中有」初生以後到「本有」(根本有的階段,即現實生命)之未衰變位。「老」包括衰老的所有階段。「死」是身體退化至生命終結。

---------------------------

1  十二支也被稱為十二因緣。它們是因果相續中的十二個環節:(1)無明或愚癡;(2)行、業行或趨勢;(3)識;(4)名色、名稱和色因;(5)六處,即眼、耳、鼻、舌、身和意六根;(6)觸;(7)受、感受;(8)愛,渴求;(9)取,執取,緊握;(10)有,存在,(11)生;(12)衰老和死亡。經典明示:「無明緣行;行緣識」等等。

2. 佛經上說:種子可以潛伏八萬劫而不萌生,若要萌生,它必須被愛支(貪愛、欲望或渴望)滋潤。在它被滋潤的那一刻,便能生起現行法,亦能引出未來法。

3. 窺基法師有言:有情眾生逢受內異熟時,因為迷於內心痛苦(世俗苦),遂起非福業行。此苦相粗顯易知,故名世俗苦。當有情眾生不能了解內在勝義(出世間苦)時,遂起有漏福業和不動業。此人天苦果,相非粗顯,惟勝超者方明是苦,故名勝義苦。

  隨後,接觸境界時,由於無法覺知其本質,遂起雜染的受支;然後增長愛等支。

  實際上,迷於內世俗苦者也可潤種生果。迷於外境者也能發業。

 

尚德按:

這次《成唯識論》談到佛法的根本問題。是要了生脫死。人世的根本問題,就是:生從哪裡來,死向何處去。關於了生脫死,各有各的看法和理解。南老師說:

「了了了時無可了,行行行到法王家。」

無可了,因緣生,因緣滅;生生死死,死死生生,緣起性空,性空緣起,又能了個什麼?在無可了中,只有向佛、歸佛。成佛後,和釋迦牟尼佛與諸佛菩薩在一起。這就要在善法中歷劫修行。

孔子說:「未知生,焉知死。」

莊子也說:「善吾生者,所以善吾死也。」

基督教則說:到上帝那邊去。

幾十年前,我寫過一篇「談十二因緣」,登在南老師辦的「知見」雜誌上,讀者可以細細而客觀地去參透十二因緣。

尚德在此只泛泛地談一談對十二因緣的感想,也就是對自己生死的感想:

1 我絕對相信,自己的投胎,一定是在朦朧不可知的盲目「意象」中,透過種子識(也就是阿賴耶識或阿陀那識)的原始基因而投胎;但是菩薩投胎是為了度眾而投胎的。

   2 在第一次投胎之前,自己究竟在哪裡?自己不在哪裡,在無何有之鄉。

3 投胎以後就麻煩了,阿陀那識或阿賴耶識(也叫種子識),本身是無善無惡,無覆無記。一旦投了胎,就有第七末那識的貪、瞋、慢、惡見,生生世世抓自己的種子識不放,死死的被情鉤、意鎖、欲鏈綑綁,在三界六道中輪迴不已,忍受種種內苦、外苦,不得解脫。

   4 十二因緣一開始說,無明緣行。「緣」也者,是落到、歸到、如影隨形的意思。「無明」是整個意識煩惱的總稱。也就是說,一旦眾生投胎有了生命,煩惱就始終綑綁著自己了。「行」也者,就是無明以下的十一種層次的活動。在每一個層次的活動中,一句話,都是煩惱。

5 接著說行緣識,佛法說:「三界唯心,萬法唯識」。心是聚集,識是了別。在十二因緣的範疇理解中,因著無明和行,才有識。識的意義就是在分別中,有功能、作用、變化、回歸等等的過程。所以透過無明、行、識,就引出了《楞伽經》所說的「名、相、分別」這些內涵與式樣。

6 再往前發展,就有所謂愛、取、有、生、老死等等。這裡要注意的是,凡存在必為「有」。十二因緣中所提出的「有」,是眾生存在的一個特殊意義。這個「有」是與取和愛聯繫在一起的。因為愛緣取,取緣有,《成唯識論》說,取有四取。實際上總結的說,取是能取和所取。人要得自在和解脫,用觀音法門和唯識的道理來談,就是要超越能取與所取、能覺與所覺,才能成佛。

  7 在十二因緣的說明中,最重要的一點就是「愛」。什麼是十二因緣中所說的愛呢?就是眾生一旦存在,是絕對愛自己的,也就是絕對深度、不可被拔、不可被侵犯的自我戀。

  8 從人的深度、不可被拔、不可被侵犯的自我戀來說,人是什麼?

人是:

我要活下去,我要依自己存在的種種內涵和形式活下去。那是他人絕對不可碰的。眾生的悲劇在此。因為人並沒有一個什麼真正的自我。自己抓自己,是絕對抓不到的,所以一定要無我、無法。否則自己和眾生的貪瞋癡,便永遠錯綜複雜的糾結交纏在一起。

  9 要提醒的是,諸行無常,是生滅法;生滅滅已,寂滅為樂。金剛經說:「凡所有相,皆是虛妄;若見諸相非相,則見如來」。「非相」就是「虛妄」。如來者,佛也。要成佛啊!否則作為凡夫眾生,就一定是貪瞋癡,活著既苦,也實在意義不大。人本來清淨無事且高貴啊!

  10 佛法的中道偈說:

因緣所生法,

我說即是空;

亦名為假名,

亦名中道義。

   中道也者,即勝義諦,就是佛的境界。只有超越「因緣所生法」,知空又超越空,超越一切語言意識,歸到本來不生不滅、不垢不淨、不增不減的存在境界中,才能超越十二因緣。

 

255

待續  

 

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各位道友

張尚德

佛法大乘是捨己為人,不作擔板漢。

當湖北武漢病毒流行,

各位除了自己要安定外,並盡自己一己之力,

幫助抗疫,

行願為要也。 

  

尚德  於台灣達摩書院

二零二零年二月九日

 

--------------------------

 

各地道友

張尚德

 

此時正好靜下心來

虛通寂靜

明妙安樂

敬念《心經》

無有恐怖,遠離顛倒夢想。

祈求

天佑中華,和睦世界

祝福十方各位

 

德  於台灣達摩書院

二零二零年二月八日

--------------------------

 

中華唯識學會華慧大專生及自學者佛學徵文比賽

徵稿啟事

一、緣起

本學會為弘揚傳統精華文化,培育後起之秀,特舉辦「大專生及自學者佛學徵文比賽」,鼓勵研讀佛典,撰寫論文或讀書心得。

二、申請資格

國內外公私立大專院校及研究所在學學生及自研學者,依本學會規定主題及參考資料,自訂文章題目撰寫論文或讀書心得。

三、各組主題、參考資料暨獎勵辦法

主題參考資料

獎勵辦法說明

主題一:三十七菩提道品

參考資料:

1.《阿毘達磨法蘊足論》

第七正勝品
第八神足品
第九念住品
第十聖諦品
第十五覺支品

2.《華嚴經》第八四聖諦品

3.《佛說大乘不思議神通境界經》

4.《文殊師利所說不思議佛境界經》

l 年齡限三十五歲(含本數)以下。

l 請就主題一或主題二,擇一撰寫,字數限一萬字以內。

l 錄取:

特優一位,新台幣三萬元。

優等兩位,各新台幣二萬元。

佳作兩位,各台幣一萬元。

l 得獎作品授權中華唯識學會發表及出版。

主題二:我為什麼要學佛?怎樣學佛?

主題三:唯識

參考資料:

1.《百法明門論》
2.
《唯識三十頌》
3.
《八識規矩頌》
4.
《成唯識論》
5.
《楞伽經》
6.
《楞嚴經》

l  不限年齡。

l  論述十萬字以上,錄取者之作品,授權中華唯識學會出書,並決定書名。

l  錄取一名,獎金新台幣二十萬元。

四、收件日期

2019121日起至2020430日止。

五、繳交文件

申請表1請下載「中華唯識學會華慧大專生及自學者佛學徵文比賽報名表」)。

文稿電子檔(DOCDOCX)、學生證及身分證正反面清晰拍照,寄到dharma_academy@yahoo.com

得獎作品之著作權歸屬於中華唯識學會(以下簡稱本學會),未錄取者不退稿。

六、作品發表

將於20208月中旬邀請得獎者至本學會及達摩書院參加文章發表會及頒發典禮。頒獎典禮日期將另函通知。得獎作品將擇優於本學會網站或《華慧》期刊刊登。

七、得獎人與本學會關於著作權之約定

(一)得獎人同意將得獎作品之著作財產權,全部讓與本學會,本學會得在任何地點、任何時間、以任何方式出版、利用、或授權他人利用該著作。著作人不得撤銷此項讓與,且本學會毋須因此再支付任何費用。

(二)投稿著作不得抄襲他人著作、請人代筆、一稿數投或以已發表舊作申請。本學會如發現前述情事將不予錄取或追回獎金。如因得獎人著作權瑕疵造成本學會任何損失,投稿人應賠償本學會所受全部損失。

{主辦單位}中華唯識學會
{地址}35443苗栗縣獅潭鄉豐林村大坡塘十五號
{電話}037-93181609835175890933529553
{信箱}
dharma_academy@yahoo.com

 

-----------------

 

《指月錄》的破竈

 

嵩嶽破竈墮和尚。不稱名氏。言行叵測。隱居嵩嶽。山塢有廟甚靈。殿中惟安一竈。遠近祭祀不輟。烹宰物命甚多。師一日領侍僧入廟。以杖敲竈三下曰。咄。此竈。只是泥瓦合成。聖從何來。靈從何起。恁麼烹宰物命。又打三下。竈乃傾破墮落。須臾有一人青衣峩冠。設拜師前。師曰。是甚麼人。曰我本此廟竈神。久受業報。今日蒙師說無生法。得脫此處。生在天中。特來致謝。師曰。是汝本有之性。非吾強言。神再禮而沒。少選侍僧問曰。某等久侍和尚。不蒙示誨。竈神得甚麼徑旨。便得生天。師曰。我只向伊道。是泥瓦合成。別也無道理為伊。侍僧無言。師曰會麼。僧曰不會。師曰。本有之性。為甚麼不會。侍僧等乃禮拜。師曰。破也破也。墮也墮也。僧問。物物無形時如何。師曰。禮即唯汝非我。不禮即唯我非汝。其僧乃禮謝。師曰。本有之物。物非物也。所以道。心能轉物。即同如來。

 

高証按:

張老師這次春節禪七,特地把《指月錄》的〈破竈墮和尚〉告訴大家。

張老師說:

很多人不拜天命拜鬼神。

二零一九年二月十三日

於台灣達摩書院